Bitcoin Trading with Leverage Explained executium ...

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off Public Proposal

Dragonchain Public Proposal TL;DR:

Dragonchain has demonstrated twice Reddit’s entire total daily volume (votes, comments, and posts per Reddit 2019 Year in Review) in a 24-hour demo on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. At the time, in January 2020, the entire cost of the demo was approximately $25K on a single system (transaction fees locked at $0.0001/txn). With current fees (lowest fee $0.0000025/txn), this would cost as little as $625.
Watch Joe walk through the entire proposal and answer questions on YouTube.
This proposal is also available on the Dragonchain blog.

Hello Reddit and Ethereum community!

I’m Joe Roets, Founder & CEO of Dragonchain. When the team and I first heard about The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off we were intrigued. We believe we have the solutions Reddit seeks for its community points system and we have them at scale.
For your consideration, we have submitted our proposal below. The team at Dragonchain and I welcome and look forward to your technical questions, philosophical feedback, and fair criticism, to build a scaling solution for Reddit that will empower its users. Because our architecture is unlike other blockchain platforms out there today, we expect to receive many questions while people try to grasp our project. I will answer all questions here in this thread on Reddit, and I've answered some questions in the stream on YouTube.
We have seen good discussions so far in the competition. We hope that Reddit’s scaling solution will emerge from The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and that Reddit will have great success with the implementation.

Executive summary

Dragonchain is a robust open source hybrid blockchain platform that has proven to withstand the passing of time since our inception in 2014. We have continued to evolve to harness the scalability of private nodes, yet take full advantage of the security of public decentralized networks, like Ethereum. We have a live, operational, and fully functional Interchain network integrating Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and ~700 independent Dragonchain nodes. Every transaction is secured to Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Ethereum Classic. Transactions are immediately usable on chain, and the first decentralization is seen within 20 seconds on Dragon Net. Security increases further to public networks ETH, BTC, and ETC within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Smart contracts can be written in any executable language, offering full freedom to existing developers. We invite any developer to watch the demo, play with our SDK’s, review open source code, and to help us move forward. Dragonchain specializes in scalable loyalty & rewards solutions and has built a decentralized social network on chain, with very affordable transaction costs. This experience can be combined with the insights Reddit and the Ethereum community have gained in the past couple of months to roll out the solution at a rapid pace.

Response and PoC

In The Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off post, Reddit has asked for a series of demonstrations, requirements, and other considerations. In this section, we will attempt to answer all of these requests.

Live Demo

A live proof of concept showing hundreds of thousands of transactions
On Jan 7, 2020, Dragonchain hosted a 24-hour live demonstration during which a quarter of a billion (250 million+) transactions executed fully on an operational network. Every single transaction on Dragonchain is decentralized immediately through 5 levels of Dragon Net, and then secured with combined proof on Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, and Binance Chain, via Interchain. This means that every single transaction is secured by, and traceable to these networks. An attack on this system would require a simultaneous attack on all of the Interchained networks.
24 hours in 4 minutes (YouTube):
24 hours in 4 minutes
The demonstration was of a single business system, and any user is able to scale this further, by running multiple systems simultaneously. Our goals for the event were to demonstrate a consistent capacity greater than that of Visa over an extended time period.
Tooling to reproduce our demo is available here:
https://github.com/dragonchain/spirit-bomb

Source Code

Source code (for on & off-chain components as well tooling used for the PoC). The source code does not have to be shared publicly, but if Reddit decides to use a particular solution it will need to be shared with Reddit at some point.

Scaling

How it works & scales

Architectural Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture attacks the scalability issue from multiple angles. Dragonchain is a hybrid blockchain platform, wherein every transaction is protected on a business node to the requirements of that business or purpose. A business node may be held completely private or may be exposed or replicated to any level of exposure desired.
Every node has its own blockchain and is independently scalable. Dragonchain established Context Based Verification as its consensus model. Every transaction is immediately usable on a trust basis, and in time is provable to an increasing level of decentralized consensus. A transaction will have a level of decentralization to independently owned and deployed Dragonchain nodes (~700 nodes) within seconds, and full decentralization to BTC and ETH within minutes or hours. Level 5 nodes (Interchain nodes) function to secure all transactions to public or otherwise external chains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum. These nodes scale the system by aggregating multiple blocks into a single Interchain transaction on a cadence. This timing is configurable based upon average fees for each respective chain. For detailed information about Dragonchain’s architecture, and Context Based Verification, please refer to the Dragonchain Architecture Document.

Economic Scaling

An interesting feature of Dragonchain’s network consensus is its economics and scarcity model. Since Dragon Net nodes (L2-L4) are independent staking nodes, deployment to cloud platforms would allow any of these nodes to scale to take on a large percentage of the verification work. This is great for scalability, but not good for the economy, because there is no scarcity, and pricing would develop a downward spiral and result in fewer verification nodes. For this reason, Dragonchain uses TIME as scarcity.
TIME is calculated as the number of Dragons held, multiplied by the number of days held. TIME influences the user’s access to features within the Dragonchain ecosystem. It takes into account both the Dragon balance and length of time each Dragon is held. TIME is staked by users against every verification node and dictates how much of the transaction fees are awarded to each participating node for every block.
TIME also dictates the transaction fee itself for the business node. TIME is staked against a business node to set a deterministic transaction fee level (see transaction fee table below in Cost section). This is very interesting in a discussion about scaling because it guarantees independence for business implementation. No matter how much traffic appears on the entire network, a business is guaranteed to not see an increased transaction fee rate.

Scaled Deployment

Dragonchain uses Docker and Kubernetes to allow the use of best practices traditional system scaling. Dragonchain offers managed nodes with an easy to use web based console interface. The user may also deploy a Dragonchain node within their own datacenter or favorite cloud platform. Users have deployed Dragonchain nodes on-prem on Amazon AWS, Google Cloud, MS Azure, and other hosting platforms around the world. Any executable code, anything you can write, can be written into a smart contract. This flexibility is what allows us to say that developers with no blockchain experience can use any code language to access the benefits of blockchain. Customers have used NodeJS, Python, Java, and even BASH shell script to write smart contracts on Dragonchain.
With Docker containers, we achieve better separation of concerns, faster deployment, higher reliability, and lower response times.
We chose Kubernetes for its self-healing features, ability to run multiple services on one server, and its large and thriving development community. It is resilient, scalable, and automated. OpenFaaS allows us to package smart contracts as Docker images for easy deployment.
Contract deployment time is now bounded only by the size of the Docker image being deployed but remains fast even for reasonably large images. We also take advantage of Docker’s flexibility and its ability to support any language that can run on x86 architecture. Any image, public or private, can be run as a smart contract using Dragonchain.

Flexibility in Scaling

Dragonchain’s architecture considers interoperability and integration as key features. From inception, we had a goal to increase adoption via integration with real business use cases and traditional systems.
We envision the ability for Reddit, in the future, to be able to integrate alternate content storage platforms or other financial services along with the token.
  • LBRY - To allow users to deploy content natively to LBRY
  • MakerDAO to allow users to lend small amounts backed by their Reddit community points.
  • STORJ/SIA to allow decentralized on chain storage of portions of content. These integrations or any other are relatively easy to integrate on Dragonchain with an Interchain implementation.

Cost

Cost estimates (on-chain and off-chain) For the purpose of this proposal, we assume that all transactions are on chain (posts, replies, and votes).
On the Dragonchain network, transaction costs are deterministic/predictable. By staking TIME on the business node (as described above) Reddit can reduce transaction costs to as low as $0.0000025 per transaction.
Dragonchain Fees Table

Getting Started

How to run it
Building on Dragonchain is simple and requires no blockchain experience. Spin up a business node (L1) in our managed environment (AWS), run it in your own cloud environment, or on-prem in your own datacenter. Clear documentation will walk you through the steps of spinning up your first Dragonchain Level 1 Business node.
Getting started is easy...
  1. Download Dragonchain’s dctl
  2. Input three commands into a terminal
  3. Build an image
  4. Run it
More information can be found in our Get started documents.

Architecture
Dragonchain is an open source hybrid platform. Through Dragon Net, each chain combines the power of a public blockchain (like Ethereum) with the privacy of a private blockchain.
Dragonchain organizes its network into five separate levels. A Level 1, or business node, is a totally private blockchain only accessible through the use of public/private keypairs. All business logic, including smart contracts, can be executed on this node directly and added to the chain.
After creating a block, the Level 1 business node broadcasts a version stripped of sensitive private data to Dragon Net. Three Level 2 Validating nodes validate the transaction based on guidelines determined from the business. A Level 3 Diversity node checks that the level 2 nodes are from a diverse array of locations. A Level 4 Notary node, hosted by a KYC partner, then signs the validation record received from the Level 3 node. The transaction hash is ledgered to the Level 5 public chain to take advantage of the hash power of massive public networks.
Dragon Net can be thought of as a “blockchain of blockchains”, where every level is a complete private blockchain. Because an L1 can send to multiple nodes on a single level, proof of existence is distributed among many places in the network. Eventually, proof of existence reaches level 5 and is published on a public network.

API Documentation

APIs (on chain & off)

SDK Source

Nobody’s Perfect

Known issues or tradeoffs
  • Dragonchain is open source and even though the platform is easy enough for developers to code in any language they are comfortable with, we do not have so large a developer community as Ethereum. We would like to see the Ethereum developer community (and any other communities) become familiar with our SDK’s, our solutions, and our platform, to unlock the full potential of our Ethereum Interchain. Long ago we decided to prioritize both Bitcoin and Ethereum Interchains. We envision an ecosystem that encompasses different projects to give developers the ability to take full advantage of all the opportunities blockchain offers to create decentralized solutions not only for Reddit but for all of our current platforms and systems. We believe that together we will take the adoption of blockchain further. We currently have additional Interchain with Ethereum Classic. We look forward to Interchain with other blockchains in the future. We invite all blockchains projects who believe in decentralization and security to Interchain with Dragonchain.
  • While we only have 700 nodes compared to 8,000 Ethereum and 10,000 Bitcoin nodes. We harness those 18,000 nodes to scale to extremely high levels of security. See Dragonchain metrics.
  • Some may consider the centralization of Dragonchain’s business nodes as an issue at first glance, however, the model is by design to protect business data. We do not consider this a drawback as these nodes can make any, none, or all data public. Depending upon the implementation, every subreddit could have control of its own business node, for potential business and enterprise offerings, bringing new alternative revenue streams to Reddit.

Costs and resources

Summary of cost & resource information for both on-chain & off-chain components used in the PoC, as well as cost & resource estimates for further scaling. If your PoC is not on mainnet, make note of any mainnet caveats (such as congestion issues).
Every transaction on the PoC system had a transaction fee of $0.0001 (one-hundredth of a cent USD). At 256MM transactions, the demo cost $25,600. With current operational fees, the same demonstration would cost $640 USD.
For the demonstration, to achieve throughput to mimic a worldwide payments network, we modeled several clients in AWS and 4-5 business nodes to handle the traffic. The business nodes were tuned to handle higher throughput by adjusting memory and machine footprint on AWS. This flexibility is valuable to implementing a system such as envisioned by Reddit. Given that Reddit’s daily traffic (posts, replies, and votes) is less than half that of our demo, we would expect that the entire Reddit system could be handled on 2-5 business nodes using right-sized containers on AWS or similar environments.
Verification was accomplished on the operational Dragon Net network with over 700 independently owned verification nodes running around the world at no cost to the business other than paid transaction fees.

Requirements

Scaling

This PoC should scale to the numbers below with minimal costs (both on & off-chain). There should also be a clear path to supporting hundreds of millions of users.
Over a 5 day period, your scaling PoC should be able to handle:
*100,000 point claims (minting & distributing points) *25,000 subscriptions *75,000 one-off points burning *100,000 transfers
During Dragonchain’s 24 hour demo, the above required numbers were reached within the first few minutes.
Reddit’s total activity is 9000% more than Ethereum’s total transaction level. Even if you do not include votes, it is still 700% more than Ethereum’s current volume. Dragonchain has demonstrated that it can handle 250 million transactions a day, and it’s architecture allows for multiple systems to work at that level simultaneously. In our PoC, we demonstrate double the full capacity of Reddit, and every transaction was proven all the way to Bitcoin and Ethereum.
Reddit Scaling on Ethereum

Decentralization

Solutions should not depend on any single third-party provider. We prefer solutions that do not depend on specific entities such as Reddit or another provider, and solutions with no single point of control or failure in off-chain components but recognize there are numerous trade-offs to consider
Dragonchain’s architecture calls for a hybrid approach. Private business nodes hold the sensitive data while the validation and verification of transactions for the business are decentralized within seconds and secured to public blockchains within 10 minutes to 2 hours. Nodes could potentially be controlled by owners of individual subreddits for more organic decentralization.
  • Billing is currently centralized - there is a path to federation and decentralization of a scaled billing solution.
  • Operational multi-cloud
  • Operational on-premises capabilities
  • Operational deployment to any datacenter
  • Over 700 independent Community Verification Nodes with proof of ownership
  • Operational Interchain (Interoperable to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and Ethereum Classic, open to more)

Usability Scaling solutions should have a simple end user experience.

Users shouldn't have to maintain any extra state/proofs, regularly monitor activity, keep track of extra keys, or sign anything other than their normal transactions
Dragonchain and its customers have demonstrated extraordinary usability as a feature in many applications, where users do not need to know that the system is backed by a live blockchain. Lyceum is one of these examples, where the progress of academy courses is being tracked, and successful completion of courses is rewarded with certificates on chain. Our @Save_The_Tweet bot is popular on Twitter. When used with one of the following hashtags - #please, #blockchain, #ThankYou, or #eternalize the tweet is saved through Eternal to multiple blockchains. A proof report is available for future reference. Other examples in use are DEN, our decentralized social media platform, and our console, where users can track their node rewards, view their TIME, and operate a business node.
Examples:

Transactions complete in a reasonable amount of time (seconds or minutes, not hours or days)
All transactions are immediately usable on chain by the system. A transaction begins the path to decentralization at the conclusion of a 5-second block when it gets distributed across 5 separate community run nodes. Full decentralization occurs within 10 minutes to 2 hours depending on which interchain (Bitcoin, Ethereum, or Ethereum Classic) the transaction hits first. Within approximately 2 hours, the combined hash power of all interchained blockchains secures the transaction.

Free to use for end users (no gas fees, or fixed/minimal fees that Reddit can pay on their behalf)
With transaction pricing as low as $0.0000025 per transaction, it may be considered reasonable for Reddit to cover transaction fees for users.
All of Reddit's Transactions on Blockchain (month)
Community points can be earned by users and distributed directly to their Reddit account in batch (as per Reddit minting plan), and allow users to withdraw rewards to their Ethereum wallet whenever they wish. Withdrawal fees can be paid by either user or Reddit. This model has been operating inside the Dragonchain system since 2018, and many security and financial compliance features can be optionally added. We feel that this capability greatly enhances user experience because it is seamless to a regular user without cryptocurrency experience, yet flexible to a tech savvy user. With regard to currency or token transactions, these would occur on the Reddit network, verified to BTC and ETH. These transactions would incur the $0.0000025 transaction fee. To estimate this fee we use the monthly active Reddit users statista with a 60% adoption rate and an estimated 10 transactions per month average resulting in an approximate $720 cost across the system. Reddit could feasibly incur all associated internal network charges (mining/minting, transfer, burn) as these are very low and controllable fees.
Reddit Internal Token Transaction Fees

Reddit Ethereum Token Transaction Fees
When we consider further the Ethereum fees that might be incurred, we have a few choices for a solution.
  1. Offload all Ethereum transaction fees (user withdrawals) to interested users as they wish to withdraw tokens for external use or sale.
  2. Cover Ethereum transaction fees by aggregating them on a timed schedule. Users would request withdrawal (from Reddit or individual subreddits), and they would be transacted on the Ethereum network every hour (or some other schedule).
  3. In a combination of the above, customers could cover aggregated fees.
  4. Integrate with alternate Ethereum roll up solutions or other proposals to aggregate minting and distribution transactions onto Ethereum.

Bonus Points

Users should be able to view their balances & transactions via a blockchain explorer-style interface
From interfaces for users who have no knowledge of blockchain technology to users who are well versed in blockchain terms such as those present in a typical block explorer, a system powered by Dragonchain has flexibility on how to provide balances and transaction data to users. Transactions can be made viewable in an Eternal Proof Report, which displays raw data along with TIME staking information and traceability all the way to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and every other Interchained network. The report shows fields such as transaction ID, timestamp, block ID, multiple verifications, and Interchain proof. See example here.
Node payouts within the Dragonchain console are listed in chronological order and can be further seen in either Dragons or USD. See example here.
In our social media platform, Dragon Den, users can see, in real-time, their NRG and MTR balances. See example here.
A new influencer app powered by Dragonchain, Raiinmaker, breaks down data into a user friendly interface that shows coin portfolio, redeemed rewards, and social scores per campaign. See example here.

Exiting is fast & simple
Withdrawing funds on Dragonchain’s console requires three clicks, however, withdrawal scenarios with more enhanced security features per Reddit’s discretion are obtainable.

Interoperability Compatibility with third party apps (wallets/contracts/etc) is necessary.
Proven interoperability at scale that surpasses the required specifications. Our entire platform consists of interoperable blockchains connected to each other and traditional systems. APIs are well documented. Third party permissions are possible with a simple smart contract without the end user being aware. No need to learn any specialized proprietary language. Any code base (not subsets) is usable within a Docker container. Interoperable with any blockchain or traditional APIs. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js. Please see our source code and API documentation.

Scaling solutions should be extensible and allow third parties to build on top of it Open source and extensible
APIs should be well documented and stable

Documentation should be clear and complete
For full documentation, explore our docs, SDK’s, Github repo’s, architecture documents, original Disney documentation, and other links or resources provided in this proposal.

Third-party permissionless integrations should be possible & straightforward Smart contracts are Docker based, can be written in any language, use full language (not subsets), and can therefore be integrated with any system including traditional system APIs. Simple is better. Learning an uncommon or proprietary language should not be necessary.
Advanced knowledge of mathematics, cryptography, or L2 scaling should not be required. Compatibility with common utilities & toolchains is expected.
Dragonchain business nodes and smart contracts leverage Docker to allow the use of literally any language or executable code. No proprietary language is necessary. We’ve witnessed relatively complex systems built by engineers with no blockchain or cryptocurrency experience. We’ve also demonstrated the creation of smart contracts within minutes built with BASH shell and Node.js.

Bonus

Bonus Points: Show us how it works. Do you have an idea for a cool new use case for Community Points? Build it!

TIME

Community points could be awarded to Reddit users based upon TIME too, whereas the longer someone is part of a subreddit, the more community points someone naturally gained, even if not actively commenting or sharing new posts. A daily login could be required for these community points to be credited. This grants awards to readers too and incentivizes readers to create an account on Reddit if they browse the website often. This concept could also be leveraged to provide some level of reputation based upon duration and consistency of contribution to a community subreddit.

Dragon Den

Dragonchain has already built a social media platform that harnesses community involvement. Dragon Den is a decentralized community built on the Dragonchain blockchain platform. Dragon Den is Dragonchain’s answer to fake news, trolling, and censorship. It incentivizes the creation and evaluation of quality content within communities. It could be described as being a shareholder of a subreddit or Reddit in its entirety. The more your subreddit is thriving, the more rewarding it will be. Den is currently in a public beta and in active development, though the real token economy is not live yet. There are different tokens for various purposes. Two tokens are Lair Ownership Rights (LOR) and Lair Ownership Tokens (LOT). LOT is a non-fungible token for ownership of a specific Lair. LOT will only be created and converted from LOR.
Energy (NRG) and Matter (MTR) work jointly. Your MTR determines how much NRG you receive in a 24-hour period. Providing quality content, or evaluating content will earn MTR.

Security. Users have full ownership & control of their points.
All community points awarded based upon any type of activity or gift, are secured and provable to all Interchain networks (currently BTC, ETH, ETC). Users are free to spend and withdraw their points as they please, depending on the features Reddit wants to bring into production.

Balances and transactions cannot be forged, manipulated, or blocked by Reddit or anyone else
Users can withdraw their balance to their ERC20 wallet, directly through Reddit. Reddit can cover the fees on their behalf, or the user covers this with a portion of their balance.

Users should own their points and be able to get on-chain ERC20 tokens without permission from anyone else
Through our console users can withdraw their ERC20 rewards. This can be achieved on Reddit too. Here is a walkthrough of our console, though this does not show the quick withdrawal functionality, a user can withdraw at any time. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aNlTMxnfVHw

Points should be recoverable to on-chain ERC20 tokens even if all third-parties involved go offline
If necessary, signed transactions from the Reddit system (e.g. Reddit + Subreddit) can be sent to the Ethereum smart contract for minting.

A public, third-party review attesting to the soundness of the design should be available
To our knowledge, at least two large corporations, including a top 3 accounting firm, have conducted positive reviews. These reviews have never been made public, as Dragonchain did not pay or contract for these studies to be released.

Bonus points
Public, third-party implementation review available or in progress
See above

Compatibility with HSMs & hardware wallets
For the purpose of this proposal, all tokenization would be on the Ethereum network using standard token contracts and as such, would be able to leverage all hardware wallet and Ethereum ecosystem services.

Other Considerations

Minting/distributing tokens is not performed by Reddit directly
This operation can be automated by smart contract on Ethereum. Subreddits can if desired have a role to play.

One off point burning, as well as recurring, non-interactive point burning (for subreddit memberships) should be possible and scalable
This is possible and scalable with interaction between Dragonchain Reddit system and Ethereum token contract(s).

Fully open-source solutions are strongly preferred
Dragonchain is fully open source (see section on Disney release after conclusion).

Conclusion

Whether it is today, or in the future, we would like to work together to bring secure flexibility to the highest standards. It is our hope to be considered by Ethereum, Reddit, and other integrative solutions so we may further discuss the possibilities of implementation. In our public demonstration, 256 million transactions were handled in our operational network on chain in 24 hours, for the low cost of $25K, which if run today would cost $625. Dragonchain’s interoperable foundation provides the atmosphere necessary to implement a frictionless community points system. Thank you for your consideration of our proposal. We look forward to working with the community to make something great!

Disney Releases Blockchain Platform as Open Source

The team at Disney created the Disney Private Blockchain Platform. The system was a hybrid interoperable blockchain platform for ledgering and smart contract development geared toward solving problems with blockchain adoption and usability. All objective evaluation would consider the team’s output a success. We released a list of use cases that we explored in some capacity at Disney, and our input on blockchain standardization as part of our participation in the W3C Blockchain Community Group.
https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/public-blockchain/2016May/0052.html

Open Source

In 2016, Roets proposed to release the platform as open source to spread the technology outside of Disney, as others within the W3C group were interested in the solutions that had been created inside of Disney.
Following a long process, step by step, the team met requirements for release. Among the requirements, the team had to:
  • Obtain VP support and approval for the release
  • Verify ownership of the software to be released
  • Verify that no proprietary content would be released
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to the open source community
  • Convince the organization that there was a value to Disney
  • Offer the plan for ongoing maintenance of the project outside of Disney
  • Itemize competing projects
  • Verify no conflict of interest
  • Preferred license
  • Change the project name to not use the name Disney, any Disney character, or any other associated IP - proposed Dragonchain - approved
  • Obtain legal approval
  • Approval from corporate, parks, and other business units
  • Approval from multiple Disney patent groups Copyright holder defined by Disney (Disney Connected and Advanced Technologies)
  • Trademark searches conducted for the selected name Dragonchain
  • Obtain IT security approval
  • Manual review of OSS components conducted
  • OWASP Dependency and Vulnerability Check Conducted
  • Obtain technical (software) approval
  • Offer management, process, and financial plans for the maintenance of the project.
  • Meet list of items to be addressed before release
  • Remove all Disney project references and scripts
  • Create a public distribution list for email communications
  • Remove Roets’ direct and internal contact information
  • Create public Slack channel and move from Disney slack channels
  • Create proper labels for issue tracking
  • Rename internal private Github repository
  • Add informative description to Github page
  • Expand README.md with more specific information
  • Add information beyond current “Blockchains are Magic”
  • Add getting started sections and info on cloning/forking the project
  • Add installation details
  • Add uninstall process
  • Add unit, functional, and integration test information
  • Detail how to contribute and get involved
  • Describe the git workflow that the project will use
  • Move to public, non-Disney git repository (Github or Bitbucket)
  • Obtain Disney Open Source Committee approval for release
On top of meeting the above criteria, as part of the process, the maintainer of the project had to receive the codebase on their own personal email and create accounts for maintenance (e.g. Github) with non-Disney accounts. Given the fact that the project spanned multiple business units, Roets was individually responsible for its ongoing maintenance. Because of this, he proposed in the open source application to create a non-profit organization to hold the IP and maintain the project. This was approved by Disney.
The Disney Open Source Committee approved the application known as OSSRELEASE-10, and the code was released on October 2, 2016. Disney decided to not issue a press release.
Original OSSRELASE-10 document

Dragonchain Foundation

The Dragonchain Foundation was created on January 17, 2017. https://den.social/l/Dragonchain/24130078352e485d96d2125082151cf0/dragonchain-and-disney/
submitted by j0j0r0 to ethereum [link] [comments]

Alpha5 Futures Swaps: Creating Value in Crypto Derivatives

Alpha5 Futures Swaps: Creating Value in Crypto Derivatives
Crypto derivatives have come some way in a short period of time, albeit the infrastructure of the ecosystem is still largely haphazard and uncoordinated.
Most exchanges experience a daily volume that equals or surpasses their Open Interest, highlighting some concern of trust, but more the lack of stickiness of capital.
(Source: Coingecko.com, Date: 10th July 2020)
And when it comes to actual trading, despite all the showboating, one product reigns king, the Perpetual Swap. In fact, roughly 2/3 of all BTC linear derivatives volume clears through this single product.
(Source: Coingecko.com, Date: 10th July 2020)
This is a problem. On one hand we speak of the evolving state of the market, but under the hood it appears, everyone is hugging familiarity. Without a developed futures curve, the ecosystem faces a lot of problems; speculators aren’t able to trade basis, lenders/borrowers must painstakingly hedge cash flows, convex products such as options are unable to be priced effectively, bond market development is delayed, and so on…
The large part of the issue however is not that these futures don’t exist (they do), but that they lack liquidity. But why would anyone want to venture out to the 9-month future of Bitcoin? Is the premium fair? Is it rich? Or is it too low? Almost every active HFT trader will prefer the perpetual swap to a far-dated future.
How is this solved? Futures Swaps (also known as “Futures Spreads”).
Futures swaps simply represent the price-differential between two different points in time of the same underlying contract.
For instance, assume the price of the September BTC future is 9,500, and the price of the December BTC future is 9,700. The fair market value of the Sep/Dec Futures swap is -200.
How are they used?

For “Rolling”

Assume a trader has bought (is long) 10,000 September BTC futures contracts expiring on 25th September. As the expiry date draws closer the trader wishes to “roll” their position to the next futures contract, the December BTC futures contract expiring on 25th December. If they didn’t, the trader would lose their long position, and simply realize pnL with the close-out price as the price of expiration of the September Future. To execute the roll, the trader needs to close his/her position by selling (going short) 10,000 September BTC futures contracts, and at the same time buying 10,000 December BTC futures contracts. In the absence of an effective swaps contract, he will do this manually. The execution of the roll carries two major risks:
  • Significant price risk: In an attempt to simultaneously and continuously sell/buy 10,000 futures, prices may move significantly, and the available amount in any single execution may be greater in one contract than the other; it can get lob-sided.
  • Increased fees: Unless the trader is algorithmically managing to try and become a Maker in both instances, he/she is likely to pay 2x the Taker fee in an attempt to quickly ensure the trade amounts are equal in both maturities.

For Basis Trades

It is not necessary that in the above example the trader necessarily have a position in either contract to begin with; a roll may not be mandatory. In fact, it is entirely possible that a price-differential of $200 is attractive on its own for a trader to try and earn ‘roll-down’. If the December contract is worth $200 more than the September contract in today’s date, what is the reason? Is it simply futures interest? Is it distorted by some other risks? In either event, a savvy trader may look to bet on the convergence (or even further divergence), and this would be enabled by that single-click trade in the Futures Swap market.

What does this do for the ecosystem?

Futures swaps/spreads are a common product in legacy markets. At their core, their very nature drives liquidity ‘further out the curve’. When you log into a dashboard and you see a Mar 2021 BTC futures contract, it may look as if it has a lot of risk. But what if you also saw a Perpetual Swap-Mar 2021 Swap at say -400? All of a sudden that looks different; in one leg you’re effectively short Bitcoin vs. long in another. Your risk is entirely on the price-differential, and hence it’s likely to move less than just the price of Bitcoin (lower beta), encouraging you to take a view, and perhaps with greater leverage. And in doing so, you’re providing interest to a Mar 2021 BTC futures contract that may have otherwise run dry.

Implied Orderbooks

But these products will fall flat on their face, unless they are deployed correctly, and for that you need implied orderbooks. What this simply means is that at anytime you see a futures swap price, it is directly intertwined to the liquidity of the underlying orderbooks.
Screenshot of Alpha5 interface illustrating swap prices
In this example above you see a Swap Price of -516.5/-515.5. That price is actually being aggregated from two individual futures. Meaning, if you trade the swap, you trade two futures. This is key. Because what you are doing is not only providing interest in any particular maturity, but also providing liquidity. 1+1 = More.
In the example in the previous section, if you traded the [Perpetual Swap — Mar 2021 Future] Swap without implied orderbooks, you simply get a ‘Mark Price’ reference at which you are marked for each individual leg of the Swap, and no individual legs need to be traded. But if that same price were implemented with implieds, you will have traded each individual leg in both orderbooks. This means the March orderbook actually was matched for a real trade against someone doing something completely different! There is beauty here because there is a non-linear building of liquidity with each additional contract.
Imagine you have 3 contracts available to trade:
  • Perpetual Swap
  • September Future
  • December Future
With implied orderbooks, you will have 3 additional contracts created (Perp-Sep, Perp-Dec, Sep-Dec), without needing any additional liquidity, for a total of 6 contracts.
And the general interpolation of this would look like:
https://preview.redd.it/69ckm670k1q51.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=d3b44485bb2a9c761efcdd94c4e51e3f347f861e
For every additional product that you add, you create a synergistic relationship between many more!
Having Implied Orderbooks and Swap Contracts is a very powerful tool, especially in a market that is completely imbalanced with regards to where it anchors liquidity. Alpha5 is proud to be a first mover, and looks forward to helping drive liquidity for the benefit of the ecosystem.
___________________
To learn more about Alpha5 and keep up-to-date with the latest news, visit our website and sign up for our newsletter at https://alpha5.io.
Follow along or contact the team with your inquiries:

submitted by alpha5_io to u/alpha5_io [link] [comments]

This could save Planet Earth!

My grandpa once told me: "Listen dipsh*t, if you rely on someone else for your food... then they own you AND your lovely wife."
Well... my crazy grandpa wasn't totally wrong. There is simply too many people on this planet and not enough resources to go around. All the family's generational wealth has been either divided into dust or soaked up by the rich 1%. The division of wealth and power in this world is so unbalanced, it's sick and saddening. Because of this, there are many people struggling who are so tormented and defeated... homeless, unemployed, or working as wage slaves (because overpopulation makes for cheap labor); that they feel like there is no place for them in the future and that suicide is the only option. In our current world, the right to eat, shelter, and drink fresh water are not guaranteed rights to ALL individuals! That fact is absolutely just mind blowing. Who's to blame? Humanity's greed, overpopulation, and poor distribution of efforts and resources, perhaps. (Rant over)
THE ETHICAL SOLUTION of a RADICAL NEW WORLD: In my opinion, The Great Pyramids of Egypt are a simple reminder of Maslow's 6-tier hierarchy of needs. When you take Maslow's pyramid and combined it with a hybrid of Homesteading and Universal Basic Income, something heavenly is born! Regardless of birth race, place, or poverty...I believe all people of earth and all governances should adjoin to fulfill the common goal that each living person has the right to have their Physiological needs met. We NEED to get people gardening and reconnected with their roots! (If we don't, people's nutritionless crappy diets will continue resulting in cancer and disease.) In my opinion, it's what we ALL NEED. I call it Maslow's Ark.
Maslow's Ark - Life on Earth should be modeled after Heaven; with a place and purpose prepared for you when you're born. When born to the Earth, you deserve the right to your basic physiological needs such as food, water, and shelter. (Not to struggle because your dirt poor parents selfishly birthed you to 'duck-tape' their failed marriage together... or because they get a child tax credit! \sarcasm**) We, The United People of Earth in order to transcend Maslow's Physiological needs as a birthright. Achieved by way of hybrid mix of self-sufficient homesteading and Universal Basic Income (UBI) payments. To transform and upgrade shitty land and broken homes into self-sufficient sustainable functional quality 2 or 4 Acre personalized ('green new deal'/ permaculture) homesteads and housing, thereby creating an economy of guaranteed paid jobs with the support of resources from local and world governances centrally focused on preparing places (aka Heavens on earth) for others and future generations. When working for Maslow's Ark, you are essentially doing the work of an Angel. (Biblically speaking, Naoh's Ark was a literal ship, but what is Planet Earth, but one giant Space Ship?) This way of life is my little brain-child and I would like to name it "Maslow's Ark."
We all have Physiological needs to live a fulfilled life. Nobody wants war. Nobody wants death or famine. I want to focus specifically on the 'end-cap' Tiers 1 & 6 of Maslow's pyramid as how they would look if applied to our current world. I think that all countries and individuals with a net wealth over $10m must contribute generously of resources by a majority vote (perhaps) via coordination of the United Nations leverage to kick-start this.
A quick refresher of Maslow's 6-tier pyramid:
Tier 1. Physiological needs - these are biological requirements for human survival, e.g. air, food, water, shelter, clothing, warmth, sex, sleep.
Tier 2. Safety needs - Once an individual’s physiological needs are satisfied, the needs for security and safety become salient. Protection from greed and corruption.
Tier 3. Love and belongingness needs - after physiological and safety needs have been fulfilled, the third level of human needs is social and involves feelings of belongingness. The need for interpersonal relationships motivates behavior
Tier 4. Esteem needs are the fourth level in Maslow’s hierarchy - which Maslow classified into two categories: (i) esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence) and (ii) the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g., status, prestige).
Tier 5. Self-actualization needs are the highest level in Maslow's hierarchy, and refer to the realization of a person's potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. Maslow (1943) describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.
Tier 6. Transcendence - the very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos. AKA - To Help other's Self-Actualize, beginning with Physiological Needs.
**How it works, in a nut shell:**If you don't have kids, you're a hero and don't need to work much. If you have 1 child, you must work Part-Time for Maslow's Ark. If you have 2 children, you must work Full-Time for Maslow's Ark.
How it will work in detail (Beta v1.3):
No Children Pledge:
  1. At the age of 15, you graduate from a life skills school and may inherit the choice of either: Option A - Inherit a paid-for 2 acre prepared homestead and receive 70% ($840usd per month) UBI Payments. Option B - Assigned a non-arable rent-free apartment with 80% UBI payments ($960us per month). Option C - You live life freestyle, like in an RV, conversion van, or you're homeless, or a homestead/apartment isn't available or prepared for you yet; you shall receive 100% ($1200) UBI payments. *For either option A,B, or C; the child-free individual must perform volunteer work for Maslow's Ark 1 day per week (4 flexible days per month) for 20 years. *Your choice depends on if you preference for living in-town or out-of-town. (The individual may have the opportunity to switch between these, once every 4 years.) *In addition, those who pledge not to have children are awarded a 1oz 24k Gold world medal of honor for serving the duty of your planet for their selfless child-free commitment. AKA If you don't have kids, you don't need to work much. (Through population de-escalation, these people are the real heroes and saviors of planet Earth.) *A married child-free couple may choose to consolidate in one of three ways: A. Consolidate to upgrade into a single 4-acre prepared homestead and each receive 65% ($780usd) UBI payments. C. Consolidate to a single 2-acre prepared homestead and each receive 80% UBI payments ($960us per month). B. Consolidate to upgrade into a non-arable single family home and each receive 85% ($1020usd) UBI payments. D. Consolidate to a single apartment, but each receive 90% ($1,080us) UBI Payments. (It's these individuals that will have the most financial momentum to start a business, be teachers, or become BacheloMaster Degree Students if they choose to pursue higher education with their free time, or for those that love to travel and see the world, and generally be the local economy stimulators.)
  2. For married parents caring for 1 child, When that child turns 2 years of age: Option A - If the parents have consolidated to a single 4-acre prepared homestead, they will each receive a 40% UBI ($480). Option B - If the parents have consolidated to a single 2-acre prepared homestead, they will each receive a 50% UBI ($600). Option C - If the parents have consolidated to a non-arable single-family home they will each receive a 55% UBI ($660). Option D - If the parents have consolidated to a single apartment they will each receive 60% UBI ($720). \In either option A,B,C, or D; the married couple must also commit to paid work for Maslow's Ark a minimum net of 5 days per week for 20 years. The parents may divide the work days between each other as a 0/5 or 2/3 split for example.* **If the couple's net 20 years of work service concludes prior to retirement, then their UBI payment will be 65% each until retirement.
  3. For married parents caring for 2 children, When that child turns 2 years of age: Option A - If the parents have consolidated to a single 4-acre prepared homestead, they will each receive 25% UBI ($300). Option B - If the parents have consolidated to a single 2-acre prepared homestead, they will each receive 30% UBI ($360). Option C - If the parents have consolidated to a non-arable single-family home they will each receive 40% UBI ($480). Option D - If the parents have consolidated to a single apartment they will each receive 45% UBI ($540). \In either option A,B,C, or D; the married couple must also commit to paid work for Maslow's Ark a minimum net of 7 days per week for 20 years. The parents may divide the work days between each other as a 0/7, 2/5, or 3/4 split for example. (The 3/4 split allows someone to always be home for the kids, animals, and vegetable gardens.)* **If the couple's net 20 years of work service concludes prior to retirement, then their UBI payment will be 55% each until retirement.
  4. Adoption: If a married couple with no children elect to adopt an orphan child they are awarded a 1oz 24k Gold world medal of honor for serving the duty of their planet. In addition to each keeping their 100% UBI payments, they also qualify for an additional 30% UBI payment until that child turns 16 (when they will have Maslow's Physiological needs fulfilled as a birthright).
Experimental Extra Options:
  1. An optional 6 acre prepared homestead capped at 20% UBI Payments.
  2. An optional 10 acre prepared homestead capped at 10% UBI Payments.
Universal conditions: -Individuals cannot sell or sub-lease their single family homes, homesteads, or apartments for profit, since they were prepared by The People of Earth, they inherently belong to The People of Earth. -World adoption of a 2-child limit. -Universal Healthcare -Free Education for All -Retirement age is 65, when you receive 90% UBI (instead of Social Security).
How Maslow's Ark Schooling Would Work: Schools would serve the communities multi-functionally; as food banks, seed banks, internship & job connection centers, and teaching children basic life skills. At the heart of every town city and community, there must be an large agricultural center (not just a vampire w-mart), with all the tools and resources needed to grow fruits, vegetables, care for farm animals, and other things like making compost. I propose combining the agricultural center and school as one system. If hungry people in the community desperately need food or seeds, (since the kids are growing food) they can return to their school for food and cheap supplies, functioning as the backbone and heart of every town. All current schools will be converted into large-scale self sufficient homesteads. The governances of the world will fund the solar and wind-powered system upgrades (making them off-grid which give the students a means to learn these systems). Ages 4-10 would be your standard basic Math, Language, Health, Cooking, and History. In addition, 50% of each school day would be learning how to grow food, raise chickens, milk cows, and maintain all aspects of a homestead. (Children will actually care for 2 reasons: A. Everyone loves baby chickens and B. The kids are promised a homestead at 15, and that's SO MUCH BRIGHT & POSITIVE ENERGY! (Unless they choose the apartment...)) (Every human should know how to be self-sufficient!) It's much better for children to during fresh organic milk and vitamin-rich tomatoes anyways, in those early development years. Ages 11-13 would be training in a more specific life-skill trade. Ages 14-15 would be internships where students go to job-sites to learn and assist the parents in Maslow's Ark homestead preparation. Additionally, the schools may also function as a free wholesome dating and room-mate pairing service as well as free marriages. World Governances would fund schools to build homes, (rather than the traditional mortgage) further making schools central work hubs for internships and parents.
Maslow's jobs may include (and be educationally centered around): -Housing & Apartment Rehabilitation (Carpentry, Electrical, Plumbing, HVAC) -Boosting soil Fertility & Compost Creation -Regional Food Gardening, Nurseries, & Research -Planting Permaculture Trees, Arborist, Lumber Mills -Building Greenhouses & Barns -Wood & Gas eventually replaced by fusion energy electricity plants -Solar, Wind, and Battery Technology/Service -Helping care for thy Elderly & Disabled neighbors -Farm Animal Care & breeding -Property, Homes, and Jobs bank coordinator -Small scale Electric Farm Equipment & Electric vehicle production & service. -Clean Water Production such as wells, ponds, rainwater and desalination. -100% Trash Reuse, Repurpose, & Recycling -Teaching all the aforementioned.
The Economy: Self sufficiency means less tax revenue for the government, but at the same time, (the US government is doing a terrible job at creating jobs and unemployment rates are skyrocketing. Capitalist governments don't care if businesses like w-mart or h-depot bleed towns dry of money and killed all the mom n' pop shops, or let robots take over factories. Between the green new deal, and working for Maslow's Ark homesteads, there would be millions of jobs created for regular every-day people. Every house with a big lawn could be retrofit as a homestead. Parents of kids must work, therefore they get charged taxes on their paychecks. Parents without children have a greater allowance to spend money on taxable goods and services. With The People of Earth circumventing the need to spend the bulk of their lives paying for a mortgage and having money tied into their mortgages, you will see a huge shift in people investing in other assets such as stocks, silver, gold, and bitcoin as a means of generational wealth, as it should be. (Disclaimer* I'm not an economist.) I would love to hear feedback if you agree or disagree that this would work and suggest improvements to make it work better.
In conclusion, my number and % ratios may need some fine tuning, but I believe this is the only functioning groundwork for the way that a simple and fulfilled life should be. I would love to hear feedback and I hope this concept of hybrid homesteading & % Ratio UBI becomes widely known and built upon.
submitted by MindfulMowgli to antinatalism [link] [comments]

An attepmt at explaining DeFi (this week...)

Warning, long post from my mornings contemplation. See https://twitter.com/markjeffrey/status/1300175793352445952 (Mark Jeffery 30 mins) for a video explaining DeFi.
This is my attempt at explaining DeFi.
I’m still learning this stuff, so any corrections are welcomed.
Links are provided for information, none are recommendations, nor referral links. Do your own research (DYOR) before investing :)
I’ll try not to shill YFI too much...
Not all platforms use the same mechanics as I describe, but I think I’ve covered the most common ones.

Stable coins
Crypro currency that is intended to maintain a level value. Normally with respect to USD $. Some rely on a trusted third party who has actual USD sitting in a bank account (USDT aka Tether, USDC…), others are trustless (DAI)

Maker
Lock collateral into the smart contract. Then DIA can be generated, and used for other things. DAI is designed to match the USD, and is completely trustless. You must have more value staked than the DAI removed (at least 150% over collateral) or you will get liquidated.

BTC on ETH
Bitcoin can not be directly used on the etherium chain. So, there are a number ways to make the value availble. Most involve trusting a 3rd party and the most common is wrapped BTC wBTC.
Notes WETH (Wrapped ETH) is used by some contracts to use ETH (direct use of ETH is not possible in some contracts) Unlinke WBTC, WETH is trustless as evrythign is done on the etherium blockchain (I think).

Lending
You deposit a valuable token onto a pool on platform, someone else borrows it. They pay interest to the pool. You get a proportion of the pools interest over time. When there is high demand for a particular token, the interest rate increases dynamically.
e.g. look at the interest rate model and click on the figure for
https://compound.finance/markets/USDC
Borrow rates increase lineally as more of the available pool is loaned. 2% at zero and 12.5% when the pool is emptied.
Earnings are lower than the borrowing rates because: There is more in the pool than borrowed. The platform takes a cut.
e.g. 50% of the pool is borrowed, the borrower pays 7.25%, but the lenders only get 3.38%. 3.38/0.5 = 6.76%, so about 0.5% of the interest is being taken by compound.
Different pools have different interest rate functions, DAI has an inflection point to maintain a buffer https://compound.finance/markets/DAI
The interest rate increases slowly to 4% until 75% of the available pool is loaned out. Then it’s much more expensive to borrow e.g. 16% APR at 90% utilisation.
When lending a single token into a single pool, you should always get the (slightly ?) more of same token back.

How lending works
You deposit ETH, you are given a token back as proof of participation in the pool (cETH for comound.finance).
The exchange rate for cETH to ETH is NOT fixed. Rather is changes over time. As the ETH interest is paid into the pool the cETH becomes more valuable compared to the initial deposit.
e.g. you deposit 10 ETH, and get 499.52 cETH. In a months time, you repay the 499.2 cETH cETH and get 10.1 ETH back. You have just gained 1%.

Taxes
In many jurisdictions, converting ETH to cETH would be classed as a taxable event (DYOR ! )

Lego Bricks
The cETH represents your ETH, so it has value. This means it can be used for other things...
Lego bricks is taken to mean that all these things fit together and you can sue them in different ways.

How borrowing works
You need to be over colarteralised to borrow from most platforms. So, if you deposit 10.0 ETH into a smart contract, you (currently) have $4,000 of collateral to work with. The platform may then let you borrow a % of your collateral in other tokens.
So, you can borrow $2,000 of USDC, to buy more 5 ETH. Then when ETH price goes up you sell $2100 back to USDC and repay the interest. Now you have 10.x ETH.
This is a form of Leverage, when the price goes up, you win. However, if the ETH price goes down, you risk being Liquidated. This means part of your collateral will be sold at the (lower) market price to repay your loan. There will likely be a penalty for you. (e.g. @ ETH = $300, 7.33 of your ETH is sold for $2,400, your USDC loan is repaid, and you keep the remaining 2.67 ETH and the 5 ETH you purchased.

Shorting
Deposit $8,000 collateral, Borrow 10 ETH and sell for $400 each. If the price drops to $380, buy 10.1 ETH and repay the loan and interest. You have just made $162 profit. However, if the price goes up you will still need to buy 10.1 ETH.

Flash Loans
A technomage creates a single transaction that borrows lots of money. Then within the same single ~13 second block uses it to do lots of complex things to hopefully make a profit. As it’s all within a single block, collateral is not required.
See https://mobile.twitter.com/nanexcool/status/1297068546023993349 for a transaction that made ~46,000 USDC profit (without collateral)
If this post is introducing you to the possibilities of flash loans, you are very unlikely to ever do one in the near future.
I think Aave is the most common source for flash loans.

Simple farming lending:
Simply put you token in which ever platform offers the largest interest rate. Moving to the best option costs gas (and attention).

Complex lending farming
Some platforms offer tokens in return for using a platform, so simple APR comparisons aren’t sufficient. If the additional platform token has high value it can distort the market.
E.g. when COMP was initially offered, it was profitable to:

  1. Place collateral on compound.finance
  2. Borrow BAT at 30%
  3. Lend the BAT back to the same platform at 15%
  4. Collect the COMP accrued due to interest paid and interest earned.
  5. Sell the COMP on the open market.
This technique was made less favourable by compound changing the distribution model so smaller pools (like BAT) couldn’t be exploited in this way.

DEX
Decentralised exchanges range from ones that operate with depositing assets, trading with an order book and then withdrawing, to simple interfaces that allow you to swap tokens. of the latter, the most popular is uniswap.

Liquidity provision
The swap based DEX’s rely on liquidity providers (LP). Here you deposit equal values of two tokens e.g. USDC and ETH.
Then any time someone wants to swap USDC for ETH on the exchange, they add USDC and remove ETH from the pool.
Each time someone does a swap, they pay a fee to the liquidity pool and you get a share.

Impairment loss
However, if the price of one asset goes up, the pool with stabilise to have less of it. So you see an overall increase, but not as much as if you had just hold’ed.
See https://twitter.com/ChainLinkGod/status/1270046868932661248 for an example.
Hopefully, the fees accrued are greater than the losses.
https://twitter.com/Tetranode/status/1300326676451057664/photo/1

Stable coin pairs
If you restrict yourself to similar things (e.g. USD stable coins, or different versions of BTC on Ethereum), then the impairment loss is much reduced. Curve.finance focuses on such like for like pools and allows multiple tokens in a single pool.

Complex farming liquidity pools
Taking advantage of governance token rewards for using certain exchanges / pools. This can be done to boot strap liquidity and / or allow a decentralisation of the governance of the DEX.
The tokes received have value because of expected future income, or governance rights (which may be exploited for future income)

Yearn
Yearn is a group of smart farmer protocols that allow pooling to reduce gas costs and benefit from smart developers / contracts.
The simplest EARN take tokens / stable coins and place them in the highest yielding platform for that token. https://yearn.finance/earn
The yCRV vault provides USD stable coin liquidity within curve for trading fees, but also lending fees via Yearn pools for each stable coin (oh and it gets CRV governance tokens…).
Other vaults use more complex strategies. The collateral is used to generate stable coins that then generate income from interest rates, Liquidity provision fees, and accrual of governance tokens. Some governance tokens are sold, others are used to optimise the rewards from other platforms.
For example, see this video on the Link Vault (Mark Jeffrey 13 mins).
https://twitter.com/markjeffrey/status/1300175793352445952
I expect the ETH vault may be similar, but may include Maker to generate the stable coins (rather than borrowing on Aave).
This video is a good intro on curve / yearn products (DeFIDad 31 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP-4pJpKbRU
All of these steps can be done by yourself, however, gas costs would be significant unless you have a large amount invested. Yearn, and vaults pay fees to the YFI protocol.

YFI
YFI is the token for yearn. There are only 30,000 issued. So, you can not earn them, you can:
1) Stake them for governance rewards
2) place in a yYFI vauly to gain more FYI
3) Use them as long term Ventrue capital funds within a DAO (coming soon (tm) ).

YFII, YVFV etc.
Forks of the YFI with different tokens / fees.

YAM, Sushi, YFII, etc.
To be completed…

Synthetix
To be completed...

Finally:
This is not financial advice.
There are multiple risks which get larger as more moving parts are added.
Errors and omissions expected.
Do you own research.
Comments and corrections welcomed
submitted by Over-analyser to ethfinance [link] [comments]

HOW BITCOIN INTEREST ACCOUNT WORKS

HOW BITCOIN INTEREST ACCOUNT WORKS

Why to Use Bitcoin Interest Account?


https://preview.redd.it/1kp9upu4eep51.jpg?width=1418&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a41794694c7db45a27a3b863664152d134be7bd3
Once you purchased Bitcoin, you can start immediately earning interest on your Bitcoin holdings. This is a unique advantage of Bitcoin, comparing to traditional asset classes. Generally, you lend your Bitcoin to a Bitcoin lending company on predetermined financial terms. To start generating Bitcoin passive income, you need to sign up for the Bitcoin interest account and deposit your Bitcoin. You will be able to earn Bitcoin interest after the onboarding process is completed and your interest account is active.

How Bitcoin Interest Is Paid


https://preview.redd.it/1ofvqpg6eep51.jpg?width=1183&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=afdf281e60e22a02b0d5b4ce4dfa162c83b2cfc1
The Bitcoin lending company will be paying you monthly interest in Bitcoin. Your Bitcoin interest may be compounded, meaning it can be added to a principal loan amount on the interest payout date, increasing the total loan return. The Bitcoin lending company is obliged to ensure the security of your Bitcoin holdings and should be liable for any potential losses. Bitcoin lending companies usually hold their Bitcoin reserves with a trusted Bitcoin custodian to mitigate any potential security risks.

Bitcoin Interest Account Yield


https://preview.redd.it/tx1r0pabeep51.jpg?width=810&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b1b03562932c078b9daf8438f5aab3f4ef16e065
Bitcoin interest rates are significantly higher than interest rates offered by banks, credit unions, and other financial institutions. You can earn up to 6% annually, if you keep your Bitcoin on BlockFi interest account. It’s worth mentioning that traditional financial institution pay approximately 1% annual interest rate on saving accounts in the United States. Therefore, Bitcoin interest account can generate on average six times more income than a regular savings account.

How Bitcoin Lending Companies Make Money


https://preview.redd.it/klq5a3adeep51.jpg?width=999&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=473785b22902d3a6f4d076b94921836d2faefc61
Bitcoin interest rates offered by Bitcoin lending companies are usually high, because lending companies are able to lend your Bitcoin to institutions with even higher interest rates. Those institutions prefer to borrow not to purchase Bitcoin to execute leverage trades where Bitcoin margin is required. Bitcoin lending company usually lends your Bitcoin to institutions on over-collaterized terms, keeps the margin, and therefore remains profitable. Over-collaterized terms mean that Bitcoin borrower provides Bitcoin lending company with a USD collateral, which value exceeds the loan amount.
You can learn more about Bitcoin investment products and strategies here.
Legal Disclosure: The information contained in this article is the property of Digital Finance LLC and cannot be republished without our prior permission.
Digital Finance is a Washington, DC, financial company that specializes exclusively in the Bitcoin market. We provide easy and compliant exposure to digital assets and help our customers from all over the world to instantly buy Bitcoin and earn up to 6% annually on their Bitcoin holdings.
submitted by MaximNurov to u/MaximNurov [link] [comments]

This way of life could save the world!

My grandpa once told me: "Listen dipsh*t, if you rely on someone else for your food... then they own you AND your lovely wife."
Well... my crazy grandpa wasn't totally wrong. There is simply too many people on this planet and not enough resources to go around. All the family's generational wealth has been either divided into dust or soaked up by the rich 1%. The division of wealth and power in this world is so unbalanced, it's sick and saddening. Because of this, there are many people struggling who are so tormented and defeated... homeless, unemployed, or working as wage slaves (because overpopulation makes for cheap labor); that they feel like there is no place for them in the future and that suicide is the only option. In our current world, the right to eat, shelter, and drink fresh water are not guaranteed rights to ALL individuals! That fact is absolutely just mind blowing. Who's to blame? Humanity's greed, overpopulation, and poor distribution of efforts and resources, perhaps. (Rant over)
THE ETHICAL SOLUTION of a RADICAL NEW WORLD: In my opinion, The Great Pyramids of Egypt are a simple reminder of Maslow's 6-tier hierarchy of needs. When you take Maslow's pyramid and combined it with a hybrid of Homesteading and Universal Basic Income, something heavenly is born! Regardless of birth race, place, or poverty...I believe all people of earth and all governances should adjoin to fulfill the common goal that each living person has the right to have their Physiological needs met. We NEED to get people gardening and reconnected with their roots! (If we don't, people's nutritionless crappy diets will continue resulting in cancer and disease.) In my opinion, it's what we ALL NEED. I call it Maslow's Ark.
Maslow's Ark - Life on Earth should be modeled after Heaven; with a place and purpose prepared for you when you're born. When born to the Earth, you deserve the right to your basic physiological needs such as food, water, and shelter. (Not to struggle because your dirt poor parents selfishly birthed you to 'duck-tape' their failed marriage together... or because they get a child tax credit! \sarcasm**) We, The United People of Earth in order to transcend Maslow's Physiological needs as a birthright. Achieved by way of hybrid mix of self-sufficient homesteading and Universal Basic Income (UBI) payments. To transform and upgrade shitty land and broken homes into self-sufficient sustainable functional quality 2 or 4 Acre personalized ('green new deal'/ permaculture) homesteads and housing, thereby creating an economy of guaranteed paid jobs with the support of resources from local and world governances centrally focused on preparing places (aka Heavens on earth) for others and future generations. When working for Maslow's Ark, you are essentially doing the work of an Angel. (Biblically speaking, Naoh's Ark was a literal ship, but what is Planet Earth, but one giant Space Ship?) This way of life is my little brain-child and I would like to name it "Maslow's Ark."
We all have Physiological needs to live a fulfilled life. Nobody wants war. Nobody wants death or famine. I want to focus specifically on the 'end-cap' Tiers 1 & 6 of Maslow's pyramid as how they would look if applied to our current world. I think that all countries and individuals with a net wealth over $10m must contribute generously of resources by a majority vote (perhaps) via coordination of the United Nations leverage to kick-start this.
A quick refresher of Maslow's 6-tier pyramid:
Tier 1. Physiological needs - these are biological requirements for human survival, e.g. air, food, water, shelter, clothing, warmth, sex, sleep.
Tier 2. Safety needs - Once an individual’s physiological needs are satisfied, the needs for security and safety become salient. Protection from greed and corruption.
Tier 3. Love and belongingness needs - after physiological and safety needs have been fulfilled, the third level of human needs is social and involves feelings of belongingness. The need for interpersonal relationships motivates behavior
Tier 4. Esteem needs are the fourth level in Maslow’s hierarchy - which Maslow classified into two categories: (i) esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence) and (ii) the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g., status, prestige).
Tier 5. Self-actualization needs are the highest level in Maslow's hierarchy, and refer to the realization of a person's potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. Maslow (1943) describes this level as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.
Tier 6. Transcendence - the very highest and most inclusive or holistic levels of human consciousness, behaving and relating, as ends rather than means, to oneself, to significant others, to human beings in general, to other species, to nature, and to the cosmos. AKA - To Help other's Self-Actualize, beginning with Physiological Needs.
**How it works, in a nut shell:**If you don't have kids, you're a hero and don't need to work much. If you have 1 child, you must work Part-Time for Maslow's Ark. If you have 2 children, you must work Full-Time for Maslow's Ark.
How it will work in detail (Beta v1.3):
No Children Pledge:
  1. At the age of 15, you graduate from a life skills school and may inherit the choice of either: Option A - Inherit a paid-for 2 acre prepared homestead and receive 70% ($840usd per month) UBI Payments. Option B - Assigned a non-arable rent-free apartment with 80% UBI payments ($960us per month). Option C - You live life freestyle, like in an RV, conversion van, or you're homeless, or a homestead/apartment isn't available or prepared for you yet; you shall receive 100% ($1200) UBI payments. *For either option A,B, or C; the child-free individual must perform volunteer work for Maslow's Ark 1 day per week (4 flexible days per month) for 20 years. *Your choice depends on if you preference for living in-town or out-of-town. (The individual may have the opportunity to switch between these, once every 4 years.) *In addition, those who pledge not to have children are awarded a 1oz 24k Gold world medal of honor for serving the duty of your planet for their selfless child-free commitment. AKA If you don't have kids, you don't need to work much. (Through population de-escalation, these people are the real heroes and saviors of planet Earth.) *A married child-free couple may choose to consolidate in one of three ways: A. Consolidate to upgrade into a single 4-acre prepared homestead and each receive 65% ($780usd) UBI payments. C. Consolidate to a single 2-acre prepared homestead and each receive 80% UBI payments ($960us per month). B. Consolidate to upgrade into a non-arable single family home and each receive 85% ($1020usd) UBI payments. D. Consolidate to a single apartment, but each receive 90% ($1,080us) UBI Payments. (It's these individuals that will have the most financial momentum to start a business, be teachers, or become BacheloMaster Degree Students if they choose to pursue higher education with their free time, or for those that love to travel and see the world, and generally be the local economy stimulators.)
  2. For married parents caring for 1 child, When that child turns 2 years of age: Option A - If the parents have consolidated to a single 4-acre prepared homestead, they will each receive a 40% UBI ($480). Option B - If the parents have consolidated to a single 2-acre prepared homestead, they will each receive a 50% UBI ($600). Option C - If the parents have consolidated to a non-arable single-family home they will each receive a 55% UBI ($660). Option D - If the parents have consolidated to a single apartment they will each receive 60% UBI ($720). \In either option A,B,C, or D; the married couple must also commit to paid work for Maslow's Ark a minimum net of 5 days per week for 20 years. The parents may divide the work days between each other as a 0/5 or 2/3 split for example.* **If the couple's net 20 years of work service concludes prior to retirement, then their UBI payment will be 65% each until retirement.
  3. For married parents caring for 2 children, When that child turns 2 years of age: Option A - If the parents have consolidated to a single 4-acre prepared homestead, they will each receive 25% UBI ($300). Option B - If the parents have consolidated to a single 2-acre prepared homestead, they will each receive 30% UBI ($360). Option C - If the parents have consolidated to a non-arable single-family home they will each receive 40% UBI ($480). Option D - If the parents have consolidated to a single apartment they will each receive 45% UBI ($540). \In either option A,B,C, or D; the married couple must also commit to paid work for Maslow's Ark a minimum net of 7 days per week for 20 years. The parents may divide the work days between each other as a 0/7, 2/5, or 3/4 split for example. (The 3/4 split allows someone to always be home for the kids, animals, and vegetable gardens.)* **If the couple's net 20 years of work service concludes prior to retirement, then their UBI payment will be 55% each until retirement.
  4. Adoption: If a married couple with no children elect to adopt an orphan child they are awarded a 1oz 24k Gold world medal of honor for serving the duty of their planet. In addition to each keeping their 100% UBI payments, they also qualify for an additional 30% UBI payment until that child turns 16 (when they will have Maslow's Physiological needs fulfilled as a birthright).
Experimental Extra Options:
  1. An optional 6 acre prepared homestead capped at 20% UBI Payments.
  2. An optional 10 acre prepared homestead capped at 10% UBI Payments.
Universal conditions: -Individuals cannot sell or sub-lease their single family homes, homesteads, or apartments for profit, since they were prepared by The People of Earth, they inherently belong to The People of Earth. -World adoption of a 2-child limit. -Universal Healthcare (including birth control) -Free Education for All -Retirement age is 65, when you receive 90% UBI (instead of Social Security).
How Maslow's Ark Schooling Would Work: Schools would serve the communities multi-functionally; as food banks, seed banks, internship & job connection centers, and teaching children basic life skills. At the heart of every town city and community, there must be an large agricultural center (not just a vampire w-mart), with all the tools and resources needed to grow fruits, vegetables, care for farm animals, and other things like making compost. I propose combining the agricultural center and school as one system. If hungry people in the community desperately need food or seeds, (since the kids are growing food) they can return to their school for food and cheap supplies, functioning as the backbone and heart of every town. All current schools will be converted into large-scale self sufficient homesteads. The governances of the world will fund the solar and wind-powered system upgrades (making them off-grid which give the students a means to learn these systems). Ages 4-10 would be your standard basic Math, Language, Health, Cooking, and History. In addition, 50% of each school day would be learning how to grow food, raise chickens, milk cows, and maintain all aspects of a homestead. (Children will actually care for 2 reasons: A. Everyone loves baby chickens and B. The kids are promised a homestead at 15, and that's SO MUCH BRIGHT & POSITIVE ENERGY! (Unless they choose the apartment...)) (Every human should know how to be self-sufficient!) It's much better for children to during fresh organic milk and vitamin-rich tomatoes anyways, in those early development years. Ages 11-13 would be training in a more specific life-skill trade. Ages 14-15 would be internships where students go to job-sites to learn and assist the parents in Maslow's Ark homestead preparation. Additionally, the schools may also function as a free wholesome dating and room-mate pairing service as well as free marriages. World Governances would fund schools to build homes, (rather than the traditional mortgage) further making schools central work hubs for internships and parents.
Maslow's jobs may include (and be educationally centered around): -Housing & Apartment Rehabilitation (Carpentry, Electrical, Plumbing, HVAC) -Boosting soil Fertility & Compost Creation -Regional Food Gardening, Nurseries, & Research -Planting Permaculture Trees, Arborist, Lumber Mills -Building Greenhouses & Barns -Wood & Gas eventually replaced by fusion energy electricity plants -Solar, Wind, and Battery Technology/Service -Helping care for thy Elderly & Disabled neighbors -Farm Animal Care & breeding -Property, Homes, and Jobs bank coordinator -Small scale Electric Farm Equipment & Electric vehicle production & service. -Clean Water Production such as wells, ponds, rainwater and desalination. -100% Trash Reuse, Repurpose, & Recycling -Teaching all the aforementioned.
The Economy: Self sufficiency means less tax revenue for the government, but at the same time, (the US government is doing a terrible job at creating jobs and unemployment rates are skyrocketing. Capitalist governments don't care if businesses like w-mart or h-depot bleed towns dry of money and killed all the mom n' pop shops, or let robots take over factories. Between the green new deal, and working for Maslow's Ark homesteads, there would be millions of jobs created for regular every-day people. Every house with a big lawn could be retrofit as a homestead. Parents of kids must work, therefore they get charged taxes on their paychecks. Parents without children have a greater allowance to spend money on taxable goods and services. With The People of Earth circumventing the need to spend the bulk of their lives paying for a mortgage and having money tied into their mortgages, you will see a huge shift in people investing in other assets such as stocks, silver, gold, and bitcoin as a means of generational wealth, as it should be. What I also know is that when more people are incentivized to not have kids, the proceeding generations have more space and resources. Population de-escalation creates abundance. I theorize for example: 4 or 5generations from now, you might take 3 established fruiting 2 acre homesteads and combine them into a lavish 6 acre homestead for a single couple, where UBI payments become less and less necessary, until no longer needed. In this case, you'd have an abundance of food for sale, trade and barter, and plenty of gold medals inherited from child-free aunts and uncles. This is much more appealing than the choice of an apartment in a city. I think cities would dissipate and skyscrapers be used for vertical farming. (Like Thanos, without all the death.) (Disclaimer* I'm not an economist.) I would love to hear feedback if you agree or disagree that this would work and suggest improvements to make it work better.
In conclusion, my number and % ratios may need some fine tuning, but I believe this is the only functioning groundwork for the way that a simple and fulfilled life should be. I would love to hear feedback and I hope this concept of hybrid homesteading & % Ratio UBI becomes widely known and built upon.
submitted by MindfulMowgli to homestead [link] [comments]

Two Prime, under the radar coin worth looking into.

Two Prime has released their FF1 MacroToken.
"We show how this methodology can be applied as an Open Source application, in the vein of BTC and ETH, with all the creative and value generative potential that comes along with it. We leverage store of value functions of cryptocurrencies to arrive at value creation and accretion in the real economy by the intermediary of crypto exchanges on which we propose to provide protective measures. We detail treasury and reserve formation for the Open Source Finance Foundation, describe its relation to Two Prime and detail the emission of a new crypto-asset called the FF1 Token.
We seek liquidity for the FF1 treasury within the secondary exchanges for the purpose of applying M4 in the real world, both in the private and public sector. We first apply this to the vertical of cryptocurrencies while outlining the genericity and stability of the model which we indeed to apply to esoteric financial needs (e.g. Smart City financing). In so doing, we extend the scope and control of applications that a system of digital units of value stored on decentralized, public ledgers can aim to advance. We call this approach Open Source Finance and the resulting coin class a MacroToken.
MODERN MONETARY THEORY FRAMEWORKModern Monetary Theory states two interdependent phenomenological axioms and the banking system operates on a resulting syllogism:
In the past 10 years, the formation and emergence of BTC and ETH has verifiably falsified Axiom 2 [1]. The phenomenon of crypto-currencies has created ab-initio global stores of value of type 1a. Cryptoc Currencies have displaced trust by means of government violence and associated, implied violence, with instead, open source distribution, cloud computing, objective mathematics, and the algorithmic integrity of blockchain ledgers. The first “killer app” of these open source ledgers areis stores of value, e.g. Bitcoin, or “open source money” as it was first characterized by its semi-anonymous creators. Leading crypto-currencies have proven themselves as viable global stores of value. They are regulated as Gold is in the United States. However, as type 1a units of value, they have tended towards high volatility inevitably leading to speculative market behavior and near 0 “real” asset-” backing or floor price [2], albeit with an aggregate value of $350bn ab-initio creation.
We therefore advance Axiom 2 to Axiom 2’
At N < 1 we have dilutive debasement of fungible units of value, aka inflation. At 1, the new monies are therefore stable coins. At N > 1, these tokens are designed to grow with demand. Axiom Two Prime (or 2’) displaces government endorsed violence as our macro-socio organizing principle, with algorithmic objectivity and verifiable transparency. This occurs within the landscape we call Open Source Finance.
THE TWO PRIME MODEL
Two Prime refers to the financial management company managing the OSFF. FF1 refers to the Macro Token of the OSFF. The first stage is reserve and treasury formation, the second stage describes the mechanics of the public markets and the protective measures of the reserves and third stage is treasury liquidity via the Continuous Token Offering both in public and private markets. We will now describe these in more detail.
MACRO INVESTMENT THESIS AND RATIONALE FOR FF1The FF1 MacroToken is a synthetic token based on the proven killer applications of Cryptoc-Currencies. After 110 years since the inception of the blockchain technology, the killer apps of crypto are already here and they are primarily all financial, not technical. The historical killers apps are:
The FF1 MacroToken is a pot-pourri of these features, a synthetic token that mixes the best of breed practices of crypto mixing Store-of-Value, Capital Formation and Fractional Asset-Backing.
MACRO INVESTMENT THESIS AND RATIONALE FOR FF1Treasury Generation: Ab-Initio Store of Value On the supply side, The OSFFTwo Prime has created is creating 100, 000, 000 FF1 Macro Tokens, which it keeps in treasury. They are pure stores of value for they have no assets backing them at birth. They are ab-initio instruments. The FF1 Macro Tokens are listed on public crypto exchanges. Two Prime manages operates market- making for these stores of value.
Treasury Management: Supply- Side Tokenomics All FF1 are held in the Open Source Finance Foundation treasury. Crypto aAssets that enter into treasury are, at first, not traded. The FF1 supply will be offered upon sufficient demand. which Two Prime generates publicly and privately. The total supply will be finite in total units (100, 000, 000), but variable in its aggregate value for supply and demand will make the price move. The proceeds are the property of the OSFF (not Two Prime) and Two Prime places invests the liquid treasury (post FF1 liquidation) in crypto assets to protect against depreciation and create a macro-hedge reserve andor floor for the price. It should be noted that the price and the NAV of assets are, by design, not equal. In other words, the additional OSFF treasury is locked and can enter circulation if, and only if, there is a corresponding demand which is then placed invested in crypto assets with a target value N 1. This results in fractional asset- backing at first.
EXCHANGES, CONTINUOUS TOKEN OFFERING, AND DEMAND- SIDE TOKENOMICSPublic Exchanges Two Prime will maintain listings for the FF1 Tokens on behalf of the OSFF. Two Prime maintains market- making operations in public crypto exchanges on behalf of the OSFF.
Continuous Token Offering Two Prime works on creating new liquidity for the FF1 Macro Tokens to comply with the supply side constraints detailed above, namely that a token enters circulation when matched by demand. Two Prime does demand generation in public as above as well as private. This CTO results in something akin to a reverse-ICO, letting the reserves be set by public trading and then marketing to private purchasers investors (accredited US for example) after the public liquidity event. Demand generation is done via marketing to relevant audiences, e.g. as a macro way to HODL with exclusive private equity investments for crypto holders, and as a diversified and de-risked way to gain crypto exposure for FIAT holders (Sharpe ratio: 1.55, Beta to BTC: 0.75).
PARTNER NETWORK, USE OF PROCEEDS, ACCRETION AND FLOOR PROTECTIONThough this mathematical approach allows for a broad and differentiated set of financial applications and outcomes, Two Prime founding Members will first apply this work to the realm of project finance within the Blockchain space via algorithmic balancing of an equity and debt based treasury consisting of real crypto assets and future cash flows.
Proof of Value Mining in Partner Network Funds and projects can apply to the foundation for financing. This is the partner network and is akin to the way a network of miners secure the chain. Here a network of partners protects the value. The Foundation invests the proceeds in liquid crypto assets, interest bearing crypto assets and equity crypto assets via partner funds, creating a bridge to the real economy (crypto companies) in the last step. The foundation holds these (real economic) assets.
M4 Asset Mix The funds raised are invested in public and private sector projects. We consider the following mix
This completes the M4 step and the flow of funds for the FF1 Token. It shows a feedback loop, for the Foundation can buy back it’s token, leading to an idiosyncratic tokenomics: the FF1 Token has a fixed (and potentially diminishing) SUPPLY alongside (potentially increasing) endogenous and exogenous DEMAND."
This seems pretty interesting imo, thoughts?
submitted by Stock-Accountant to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

Here is how to play the altcoin game - for newbies & champs

I have been here for many previous altcoin seasons (2013,2017 etc) and wanted to share knowedle. It's a LOOONG article.
The evaluation of altcoins (i.e not Bitcoin) is one of the most difficult and profitable exercises. Here I will outline my methodology and thinking but we have to take some things as a given. The first is that the whole market is going up or down with forces that we can't predict or control. Bitcoin is correlated with economic environments, money supply increases, safe havens such as Gold, hype and country regulations. This is an impossible mix to analyze and almost everyone fails at it. That's why you see people valuing Bitcoin from $100 to $500k frequently. Although I am bullish on the prospects of Bitcoin and decentralization and smart contract platforms, this is not the game I will be describing. I am talking about a game where you try to maximize your BTC holdings by investing in altcoins. We win this game even if we are at a loss in fiat currency value. To put it another way:
If you are not bullish in general on cryptocurrencies you have no place in investing or trading cryptocurrencies since it's always a losing proposition to trade in bubbles, a scientifically proven fact. If on the other hand you are then your goal is to grow your portfolio more than you would if holding BTC/ETH for example.

Bitcoin is the big boy

How the market works is not easily identifiable if you haven't graduated from the 2017 crypto university. When there is a bull market everything seems amazingly profitable and things keep going up outgrowing Bitcoin by orders of magnitude and you are a genius. The problem with this is that it only works while Bitcoin is going up a little bit or trades sideways. When it decides to move big then altcoins lose value both on the way up and on the way down. The second part is obvious and proven since all altcoins from 2017 are at a fraction of their BTC value (usually in the range of 80% or more down). Also, when BTC is making a big move upwards everyone exits altcoins to ride the wave. It is possible that the altcoin market behaves as an inversed leveraged ETF with leakage where in a certain period while Bitcoin starts at 10k and ends at 10k for example, altcoins have lost a lot of value because of the above things happening.

We are doing it anyway champ!

OK so we understand the risks and just wanna gambol with our money right? I get it. Why do that? Because finding the ideal scenario and period can be extremely profitable. In 2017 several altcoins went up 40x more than BTC. But again, if you don't chose wisely many of them have gone back to zero (the author has first hand experience in this!), they have been delisted and nobody remembers them. The actual mentality to have is very important and resembles poker and other speculative games:
A certain altcoin can go up in value indefinitely but can only lose it's starting investment. Think about it. You either lose 1 metric or gain many many more. Now that sounds amazing but firstly as we said we have the goal to outperform our benchmark (BTC) and secondly that going up in value a lot means that the probability is quite low. There is this notion of Expected Value (EV) that poker players apply in these kind of situations and it goes like that. If you think that a certain coin has a probability let's say 10% to go up 10X and 90% probability it goes to zero it's an even bet. If you think that probability is 11% then it's a good bet, a profitable bet and you should take it. You get the point right? It's not that it can only go 10X or 0X, there is a whole range of probability outcomes that are too mathematical to explain here and it doesn't help so much because nobody can do such analysis with altcoins. See below on how we can approximate it.

How to evaluate altcoins

A range of different things to take into account outlined below will form our decision making. Not a single one of them should dictate 100% of our strategy.

Basics

It's all about market cap. Repeat after me. The price of a coin doesn't mean anything. Say it 10 times until you believe it. I can't remember how many times I had conversations with people that were comparing coins using their coin price instead of their market cap. To make this easy to get.
If I decide because the sky is blue to make my coin supply 100 Trillion FoolCoins with a price of $0.001 and there is another WiseCoin with a supply of 100 Million and price of $1 then FoolCoins are more expensive. - Alex Fin's Cap Law

Fundamental analysis

This is done usually in the stock world and it means that each company has some fundamental value that includes it's assets, customers, growth prospects, sector prospects and leadership competence but mostly centered in financial measures such as P/E ratios etc. Valuation is a proper economic discipline by itself taught in universities. OK, now throw everything out of the window!.
This kind of analysis is impossible in vague concepts and innovations that are currently cryptocurrencies. Ethereum was frequently priced at the fictional price of gas when all financial systems on earth run on the platform after decades (a bit of exaggeration here). No project is currently profitable enough to justify a valuation multiple that is usually equal to P/E in the thousands or more. As such we need to take other things into account. What I do is included in the list below:

Relative valuation

One of my favorite ways to value altcoins that is based on the same principle in the stock market is to look at peers and decide what is the maximum cap it can grow to. As an example you take a second layer Ethereum solution that has an ICO and you want to decide if you will enter or not. You can take a look at other coins that are in the same business and compare their market caps. Thinking that your coin will outperform by a lot the top coins currently is overly optimistic so I usually take a lower valuation as a target price. If the initial offering is directly implying a valuation that is more than that then there is no room to grow according to my analysis and I skip it. Many times this has proven me wrong because it's a game theory problem where if many people think irrationally in a market it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. But since there is opportunity cost involved, in the long run, getting in initial offerings that have a lot of room to grow will pay off as a strategy.

Sector prospects

In 2017 the sexiest sector was platforms and then coins including privacy ones. Platforms are obviously still a highly rated sector because everything is being built on them, but privacy is not as hot as it used to be. In 2018 DEXes were all they hype but still people are massively using centralized exchanges. In 2020 Defi is the hottest sector and it includes platforms, oracles and Defi projects. What I am saying is that a project gets extra points if it's a Defi one in 2020 and minus points if it's a payment system that will conquer the world as it was in 2017 because that's old news. This is closely related to the next section.

Hype

Needless to say that the crypto market is a worse FOMO type of inexperienced trigger happy yolo investors , much worse than the Robinhood crowd that drove a bankrupt company's stock 1200% after they declared bankruptcy. The result is that there are numerous projects that are basically either vaporware or just so overhyped that their valuation has no connection to reality. Should we avoid those kind of projects? No and I will explain why. There are many very good technically projects that had zero hype potential due to incompetent marketing departments that made them tank. An example (without shilling because I sold out a while back) is Quantum Resistant Ledger. This project has amazing quantum resistant blockchain, the only one running now, has a platform that people can build tokens and messaging systems and other magnificent stuff. Just check how they fared up to now and you will get the point. A project *needs* to have a hype factor because you cannot judge it as normal stocks that you can do value investing like Warren Buffet does where a company will inevitable post sales and profitability numbers and investors will get dividends. Actually the last sentence is the most important: No dividends. Even projects that give you tokens or coins as dividends are not real dividends because if the coin tanks the value of the dividend tanks. This is NOT the case with company stocks where you get dollars even if the company stock tanks. All that being said, I would advice against betting on projects that have a lot of hype but little substance (but that should be obvious!).

How to construct your portfolio

My strategy and philosophy in investing is that risk should be proportional to investment capital. That means that if you are investing 100K in the crypto market your portfolio should be very different than someone investing 1K because 10% annual gains are nothing in the latter while they are very significant in the former. Starting from this principle each individual needs to construct a portfolio according to how much risk he wants to take. I will emphasize two important concepts that play well with what I said. In the first instance of a big portfolio you should concentrate on this mantra: "Diversification is the only free meal in finance". In the case of a small portfolio then this mantra is more important: "Concentrate to create wealth, diversify to maintain wealth". Usually in a big portfolio you would want to hold some big coins such as BTC and ETH to weather the ups and downs explained in previous paragraphs while generating profits and keep progressively smaller parts of your portfolio for riskier investments. Maybe 50% of this portfolio could be big caps and 10% very risky initial offerings. Adapting risk progressively to smaller portfolios makes sense but I think it would be irrational to keep more than 30% of a portfolio no matter what tied to one coin due to the very high risk of bankruptcy.

Conclusion

The altseason is supposedly coming every 3 months. Truth is that nobody can predict it but altcoins can be profitable no matter what. Forget about maximalists who are stuck in their dogmas. Altcoins deliver different value propositions and it makes sense because we are very far from a situation where some project offers everything like Amazon and we wouldn't even want that in the first place since we are talking about decentralization and not a winner takes all and becomes a monster kind of scenario! Some last minute advice:
P.S If you find value in reading this and want more weekly consider subscribing to my newsletter here
submitted by aelaos1 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Decentr ($DEC) - foundational cross-chain and cross-platform DeFi protocol

  1. SUMMARY
Decentr is a protocol designed to make blockchain/DLT mainstream by allowing DeFi applications built on various blockchains to “talk to each other”. Decentr is a 100% secure and decentralised Web 3.0 protocol where users can apply PDV (personal data value) to increase APR on $DEC that users loan out as part of of our DeFi dLoan features, as well as it being applied at PoS when paying for stuff online. Decentr is also building a BAT competitor browser and Chrome/Firefox extension that acts as a gateway to 100% decentralised Web 3.0
Allows DeFi Dapps to access all Decentr’s dFintech features, including dLoan, dPay. Key innovation is that the protocols is based on a user’s ability to leverage the value of their data as exchangeable “currency”.
  1. KEY CONCEPTS

  1. REVENUE MODEL
A fee is charged for every transaction using dPay whereby an exchange takes place between money (fiat and digital) and data, and vice versa, either as part of DeFi features or via a dApp built on Decentr. They are launching pilot programmes in the following industries:
  1. Banking/PSP Industry: On Product launch, due to Decentr’s powerful PSP connections (including the worlds #2 PSP by volume), a medium-scale pilot program will be launched, which will seed the network with 150,000 PSP customers in primarily the Spanish/LAC markets, generating revenue from day one.
  2. “Bricks and Mortar” Supermarket/Grocery Industry: Decentr aims to ensure the long-term competitiveness of “bricks and mortar” supermarkets against online-only grocery retailers, such as Amazon, by a) building secure tech that allows supermarkets to digitise every aspect of their supply chains and operational functions, while b) allowing supermarkets to leverage this incredibly valuable data as a liquid asset class. Expected revenue by Year 5: $114Mn per year.
  3. Online Advertising Industry: Decentr’s 100% decentralised platform credits users secure data with payable value, in the form of PDV, for engaging with ads. The Brave browser was launched in 2012 and in 8 years has reached over 12 million monthly active users, accented by as many as 4.3 million daily active users.
  4. TOKEN $DEC AND SALE
Decentr recently complete their token sale on a purchase portal powered by Dolomite where they raised $974,000 in 10 minutes for a total sale hardcap of 1.25M. The $DEC token is actively trading on multiple exchanges including Uniswap and IDEX. Listed for free on IDEX, Hotbit, Hoo, Coinw, Tidex, BKex. Listed on CoinGecko and Coinmarketcap. Listed on Delta and Blockfolio apps.
➡️ Circulating supply: 61m $DEC.
➡️ Release schedule and token distribution LINK -> NO RELEASE UNTIL 2021.
➡️Contract Address - 0x30f271C9E86D2B7d00a6376Cd96A1cFBD5F0b9b3
➡️Decimals - 18, Ticker - DEC
➡️Uniswap link: https://uniswap.info/pai0x3AEEE5bA053eF8406420DbC5801fC95eC57b0E0A
⭐️ HOW TO BUY VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iloAiv2oCRc&feature=youtu.be
$DEC Token utility:
A tradeable unit of value that is both internal and external to the Decentr platform.A unit of conversion between fiat entering and exiting the Decentr ecosystem.A way to capture the value of user data and combines the activity of every participant of the platform performing payment (dPay), or lending and borrowing (dLend), i.e a way to peg PDV to tangible/actionable value.Method of payment in the Decentr ecosystem.A method to internally underwrite the “Deconomy.
  1. NOTABLE SUPPORTERS
Simon Dedic - chief of Blockfyre: https://twitter.com/scoinaldo/status/1283787644221218817?s=20https://twitter.com/scoinaldo/status/1283719917657894912?s=21
Spectre Group Pick : https://twitter.com/SPECTREGRP/status/1284761576873041920https://twitter.com/llluckyl/status/1283765481716015111?s=21
Patrons of the Moon/Lil Uzi: https://t.me/patronsofthemoon/6764
CryptoGems: https://twitter.com/cryptogems_com/status/1283719318379925506?s=09t
tehMoonwalker pick who is a TOP 5 influencer per Binance:https://twitter.com/tehMoonwalkestatus/1284123961996050432?s=20https://twitter.com/binance/status/1279049822113198080
Holochain was one of their earliest supporters and they share a deep connection (recently an AMA was conducted in their TG group): https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/decentr-holochain-ama-29d662caed03
  1. UPCOMING NEWS
--------------------------------------------
  1. RESOURCES:
Website: https://decentr.net
Telegram: https://t.me/DecentrNet
Medium: https://medium.com/@DecentrNet
Twitter: https://twitter.com/DecentrNet
Whitepaper: https://decentr.net/files/Decentr_Whitepaper_V1.4.pdf
Technical Whitepaper: https://decentr.net/files/Decentr_Technical_Whitepaper_Data_As_Economic_Currency.pdf
Recent Articles:
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/decentr-token-sale-metrics-and-distribution-483bb3c58d05
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/how-decentrs-defi-dloan-function-benefits-dec-holders-97ff64a0c105
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/3-vertical-revenue-streams-decentr-is-targeting-4fa1f3dd62de
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/brave-browser-the-good-the-bad-and-the-fundamentally-misguided-8a8593b0ff5b
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/how-decentrs-dfintech-replaces-swift-sct-inst-clearing-house-and-other-payment-solutions-78acacbb4c3f
Chad Gang STRONG Community: https://t.me/decentrtrading
Community News Channel: https://t.me/chadnews
Recent Uniswap trades: https://t.me/dectrades
Wallet holder tracker: https://t.me/DEC_WALLETS_COUNT
submitted by ldd999 to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

When does leverage matter?

Hey, guys! Beginner trader here. I'm trying to ease myself into this and I want to make sure I have plenty of opportunities to make mistakes, and learn from them. Right now, I'm struggling to understand leverage; I see how risky it is, and I understand how to calculate it, but I don't understand how that effects my actual account. So if anyone can explain what I can expect here, I would appreciate it.
So I have an account with Hugo's Way. I use Bitcoin for my account, so my initial deposit was .005 BTC ($50, for argument's sake), but I added another .01 BTC ($100) before I did any trading. So my account started at a total of .015 BTC ($150), and I chose a leverage of 1:50. Due to my inexperience, I proceeded to lose about .001 BTC ($10). After consulting my teacher, who isn't exactly a forex guru, I was told to change my leverage to 1:500, and I did so, thinking it was safer, which in hindsight probably wasn't where my teacher's mind was. Afterward, through a mix of trades that I can learn from and some genuine bad luck, I lost another .001 BTC ($10), leaving my account with .013 BTC ($130) remaining. So I decided to refresh my understanding of leverage, and by my calculations, I should owe 5.05 BTC ($50,500)... Yikes. However, I see no indication that someone is looking to collect or sue my pants off.
So my calculations must be way off, but what am I getting wrong? I was thinking my broker would ask for reimbursement if I closed this account. But I read somewhere that it's calculated during my trades, so it's the big red or blue number I see next to my pips, meaning it's the same as my net profit. I've even read one top answer saying the broker doesn't care! I think I'm overreacting, but before I continue trading, I need to ask: how screwed am I really?
submitted by freezecook to Forex [link] [comments]

RESEARCH REPORT ABOUT KYBER NETWORK

RESEARCH REPORT ABOUT KYBER NETWORK
Author: Gamals Ahmed, CoinEx Business Ambassador

https://preview.redd.it/9k31yy1bdcg51.jpg?width=936&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=99bcb7c3f50b272b7d97247b369848b5d8cc6053

ABSTRACT

In this research report, we present a study on Kyber Network. Kyber Network is a decentralized, on-chain liquidity protocol designed to make trading tokens simple, efficient, robust and secure.
Kyber design allows any party to contribute to an aggregated pool of liquidity within each blockchain while providing a single endpoint for takers to execute trades using the best rates available. We envision a connected liquidity network that facilitates seamless, decentralized cross-chain token swaps across Kyber based networks on different chains.
Kyber is a fully on-chain liquidity protocol that enables decentralized exchange of cryptocurrencies in any application. Liquidity providers (Reserves) are integrated into one single endpoint for takers and users. When a user requests a trade, the protocol will scan the entire network to find the reserve with the best price and take liquidity from that particular reserve.

1.INTRODUCTION

DeFi applications all need access to good liquidity sources, which is a critical component to provide good services. Currently, decentralized liquidity is comprised of various sources including DEXes (Uniswap, OasisDEX, Bancor), decentralized funds and other financial apps. The more scattered the sources, the harder it becomes for anyone to either find the best rate for their trade or to even find enough liquidity for their need.
Kyber is a blockchain-based liquidity protocol that aggregates liquidity from a wide range of reserves, powering instant and secure token exchange in any decentralized application.
The protocol allows for a wide range of implementation possibilities for liquidity providers, allowing a wide range of entities to contribute liquidity, including end users, decentralized exchanges and other decentralized protocols. On the taker side, end users, cryptocurrency wallets, and smart contracts are able to perform instant and trustless token trades at the best rates available amongst the sources.
The Kyber Network is project based on the Ethereum protocol that seeks to completely decentralize the exchange of crypto currencies and make exchange trustless by keeping everything on the blockchain.
Through the Kyber Network, users should be able to instantly convert or exchange any crypto currency.

1.1 OVERVIEW ABOUT KYBER NETWORK PROTOCOL

The Kyber Network is a decentralized way to exchange ETH and different ERC20 tokens instantly — no waiting and no registration needed.
Using this protocol, developers can build innovative payment flows and applications, including instant token swap services, ERC20 payments, and financial DApps — helping to build a world where any token is usable anywhere.
Kyber’s fully on-chain design allows for full transparency and verifiability in the matching engine, as well as seamless composability with DApps, not all of which are possible with off-chain or hybrid approaches. The integration of a large variety of liquidity providers also makes Kyber uniquely capable of supporting sophisticated schemes and catering to the needs of DeFi DApps and financial institutions. Hence, many developers leverage Kyber’s liquidity pool to build innovative financial applications, and not surprisingly, Kyber is the most used DeFi protocol in the world.
The Kyber Network is quite an established project that is trying to change the way we think of decentralised crypto currency exchange.
The Kyber Network has seen very rapid development. After being announced in May 2017 the testnet for the Kyber Network went live in August 2017. An ICO followed in September 2017, with the company raising 200,000 ETH valued at $60 million in just one day.
The live main net was released in February 2018 to whitelisted participants, and on March 19, 2018, the Kyber Network opened the main net as a public beta. Since then the network has seen increasing growth, with network volumes growing more than 500% in the first half of 2019.
Although there was a modest decrease in August 2019 that can be attributed to the price of ETH dropping by 50%, impacting the overall total volumes being traded and processed globally.
They are developing a decentralised exchange protocol that will allow developers to build payment flows and financial apps. This is indeed quite a competitive market as a number of other such protocols have been launched.
In Brief - Kyber Network is a tool that allows anyone to swap tokens instantly without having to use exchanges. - It allows vendors to accept different types of cryptocurrency while still being paid in their preferred crypto of choice. - It’s built primarily for Ethereum, but any smart-contract based blockchain can incorporate it.
At its core, Kyber is a decentralized way to exchange ETH and different ERC20 tokens instantly–no waiting and no registration needed. To do this Kyber uses a diverse set of liquidity pools, or pools of different crypto assets called “reserves” that any project can tap into or integrate with.
A typical use case would be if a vendor allowed customers to pay in whatever currency they wish, but receive the payment in their preferred token. Another example would be for Dapp users. At present, if you are not a token holder of a certain Dapp you can’t use it. With Kyber, you could use your existing tokens, instantly swap them for the Dapp specific token and away you go.
All this swapping happens directly on the Ethereum blockchain, meaning every transaction is completely transparent.

1.1.1 WHY BUILD THE KYBER NETWORK?

While crypto currencies were built to be decentralized, many of the exchanges for trading crypto currencies have become centralized affairs. This has led to security vulnerabilities, with many exchanges becoming the victims of hacking and theft.
It has also led to increased fees and costs, and the centralized exchanges often come with slow transfer times as well. In some cases, wallets have been locked and users are unable to withdraw their coins.
Decentralized exchanges have popped up recently to address the flaws in the centralized exchanges, but they have their own flaws, most notably a lack of liquidity, and often times high costs to modify trades in their on-chain order books.

Some of the Integrations with Kyber Protocol
The Kyber Network was formed to provide users with a decentralized exchange that keeps everything right on the blockchain, and uses a reserve system rather than an order book to provide high liquidity at all times. This will allow for the exchange and transfer of any cryptocurrency, even cross exchanges, and costs will be kept at a minimum as well.
The Kyber Network has three guiding design philosophies since the start:
  1. To be most useful the network needs to be platform-agnostic, which allows any protocol or application the ability to take advantage of the liquidity provided by the Kyber Network without any impact on innovation.
  2. The network was designed to make real-world commerce and decentralized financial products not only possible but also feasible. It does this by allowing for instant token exchange across a wide range of tokens, and without any settlement risk.
  3. The Kyber Network was created with ease of integration as a priority, which is why everything runs fully on-chain and fully transparent. Kyber is not only developer-friendly, but is also compatible with a wide variety of systems.

1.1.2 WHO INVENTED KYBER?

Kyber’s founders are Loi Luu, Victor Tran, Yaron Velner — CEO, CTO, and advisor to the Kyber Network.

1.1.3 WHAT DISTINGUISHES KYBER?

Kyber’s mission has always been to integrate with other protocols so they’ve focused on being developer-friendly by providing architecture to allow anyone to incorporate the technology onto any smart-contract powered blockchain. As a result, a variety of different dapps, vendors, and wallets use Kyber’s infrastructure including Set Protocol, bZx, InstaDApp, and Coinbase wallet.
Besides, dapps, vendors, and wallets, Kyber also integrates with other exchanges such as Uniswap — sharing liquidity pools between the two protocols.
A typical use case would be if a vendor allowed customers to pay in whatever currency they wish, but receive the payment in their preferred token. Another example would be for Dapp users. At present, if you are not a token holder of a certain Dapp you can’t use it. With Kyber, you could use your existing tokens, instantly swap them for the Dapp specific token and away you go.
Limit orders on Kyber allow users to set a specific price in which they would like to exchange a token instead of accepting whatever price currently exists at the time of trading. However, unlike with other exchanges, users never lose custody of their crypto assets during limit orders on Kyber.
The Kyber protocol works by using pools of crypto funds called “reserves”, which currently support over 70 different ERC20 tokens. Reserves are essentially smart contracts with a pool of funds. Different parties with different prices and levels of funding control all reserves. Instead of using order books to match buyers and sellers to return the best price, the Kyber protocol looks at all the reserves and returns the best price among the different reserves. Reserves make money on the “spread” or differences between the buying and selling prices. The Kyber wants any token holder to easily convert one token to another with a minimum of fuss.

1.2 KYBER PROTOCOL

The protocol smart contracts offer a single interface for the best available token exchange rates to be taken from an aggregated liquidity pool across diverse sources. ● Aggregated liquidity pool. The protocol aggregates various liquidity sources into one liquidity pool, making it easy for takers to find the best rates offered with one function call. ● Diverse sources of liquidity. The protocol allows different types of liquidity sources to be plugged into. Liquidity providers may employ different strategies and different implementations to contribute liquidity to the protocol. ● Permissionless. The protocol is designed to be permissionless where any developer can set up various types of reserves, and any end user can contribute liquidity. Implementations need to take into consideration various security vectors, such as reserve spamming, but can be mitigated through a staking mechanism. We can expect implementations to be permissioned initially until the maintainers are confident about these considerations.
The core feature that the Kyber protocol facilitates is the token swap between taker and liquidity sources. The protocol aims to provide the following properties for token trades: ● Instant Settlement. Takers do not have to wait for their orders to be fulfilled, since trade matching and settlement occurs in a single blockchain transaction. This enables trades to be part of a series of actions happening in a single smart contract function. ● Atomicity. When takers make a trade request, their trade either gets fully executed, or is reverted. This “all or nothing” aspect means that takers are not exposed to the risk of partial trade execution. ● Public rate verification. Anyone can verify the rates that are being offered by reserves and have their trades instantly settled just by querying from the smart contracts. ● Ease of integration. Trustless and atomic token trades can be directly and easily integrated into other smart contracts, thereby enabling multiple trades to be performed in a smart contract function.
How each actor works is specified in Section Network Actors. 1. Takers refer to anyone who can directly call the smart contract functions to trade tokens, such as end-users, DApps, and wallets. 2. Reserves refer to anyone who wishes to provide liquidity. They have to implement the smart contract functions defined in the reserve interface in order to be registered and have their token pairs listed. 3. Registered reserves refer to those that will be cycled through for matching taker requests. 4. Maintainers refer to anyone who has permission to access the functions for the adding/removing of reserves and token pairs, such as a DAO or the team behind the protocol implementation. 5. In all, they comprise of the network, which refers to all the actors involved in any given implementation of the protocol.
The protocol implementation needs to have the following: 1. Functions for takers to check rates and execute the trades 2. Functions for the maintainers to registeremove reserves and token pairs 3. Reserve interface that defines the functions reserves needs to implement
https://preview.redd.it/d2tcxc7wdcg51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=b2afde388a77054e6731772b9115ee53f09b6a4a

1.3 KYBER CORE SMART CONTRACTS

Kyber Core smart contracts is an implementation of the protocol that has major protocol functions to allow actors to join and interact with the network. For example, the Kyber Core smart contracts provide functions for the listing and delisting of reserves and trading pairs by having clear interfaces for the reserves to comply to be able to register to the network and adding support for new trading pairs. In addition, the Kyber Core smart contracts also provide a function for takers to query the best rate among all the registered reserves, and perform the trades with the corresponding rate and reserve. A trading pair consists of a quote token and any other token that the reserve wishes to support. The quote token is the token that is either traded from or to for all trades. For example, the Ethereum implementation of the Kyber protocol uses Ether as the quote token.
In order to search for the best rate, all reserves supporting the requested token pair will be iterated through. Hence, the Kyber Core smart contracts need to have this search algorithm implemented.
The key functions implemented in the Kyber Core Smart Contracts are listed in Figure 2 below. We will visit and explain the implementation details and security considerations of each function in the Specification Section.

1.4 HOW KYBER’S ON-CHAIN PROTOCOL WORKS?

Kyber is the liquidity infrastructure for decentralized finance. Kyber aggregates liquidity from diverse sources into a pool, which provides the best rates for takers such as DApps, Wallets, DEXs, and End users.

1.4.1 PROVIDING LIQUIDITY AS A RESERVE

Anyone can operate a Kyber Reserve to market make for profit and make their tokens available for DApps in the ecosystem. Through an open reserve architecture, individuals, token teams and professional market makers can contribute token assets to Kyber’s liquidity pool and earn from the spread in every trade. These tokens become available at the best rates across DApps that tap into the network, making them instantly more liquid and useful.
MAIN RESERVE TYPES Kyber currently has over 45 reserves in its network providing liquidity. There are 3 main types of reserves that allow different liquidity contribution options to suit the unique needs of different providers. 1. Automated Price Reserves (APR) — Allows token teams and users with large token holdings to have an automated yet customized pricing system with low maintenance costs. Synthetix and Melon are examples of teams that run APRs. 2. Fed Price Reserves (FPR) — Operated by professional market makers that require custom and advanced pricing strategies tailored to their specific needs. Kyber alongside reserves such as OneBit, runs FPRs. 3. Bridge Reserves (BR) — These are specialized reserves meant to bring liquidity from other on-chain liquidity providers like Uniswap, Oasis, DutchX, and Bancor into the network.

1.5 KYBER NETWORK ROLES

There Kyber Network functions through coordination between several different roles and functions as explained below: - Users — This entity uses the Kyber Network to send and receive tokens. A user can be an individual, a merchant, and even a smart contract account. - Reserve Entities — This role is used to add liquidity to the platform through the dynamic reserve pool. Some reserve entities are internal to the Kyber Network, but others may be registered third parties. Reserve entities may be public if the public contributes to the reserves they hold, otherwise they are considered private. By allowing third parties as reserve entities the network adds diversity, which prevents monopolization and keeps exchange rates competitive. Allowing third party reserve entities also allows for the listing of less popular coins with lower volumes. - Reserve Contributors — Where reserve entities are classified as public, the reserve contributor is the entity providing reserve funds. Their incentive for doing so is a profit share from the reserve. - The Reserve Manager — Maintains the reserve, calculates exchange rates and enters them into the network. The reserve manager profits from exchange spreads set by them on their reserves. They can also benefit from increasing volume by accessing the entire Kyber Network. - The Kyber Network Operator — Currently the Kyber Network team is filling the role of the network operator, which has a function to adds/remove Reserve Entities as well as controlling the listing of tokens. Eventually, this role will revert to a proper decentralized governance.

1.6 BASIC TOKEN TRADE

A basic token trade is one that has the quote token as either the source or destination token of the trade request. The execution flow of a basic token trade is depicted in the diagram below, where a taker would like to exchange BAT tokens for ETH as an example. The trade happens in a single blockchain transaction. 1. Taker sends 1 ETH to the protocol contract, and would like to receive BAT in return. 2. Protocol contract queries the first reserve for its ETH to BAT exchange rate. 3. Reserve 1 offers an exchange rate of 1 ETH for 800 BAT. 4. Protocol contract queries the second reserve for its ETH to BAT exchange rate. 5. Reserve 2 offers an exchange rate of 1 ETH for 820 BAT. 6. This process goes on for the other reserves. After the iteration, reserve 2 is discovered to have offered the best ETH to BAT exchange rate. 7. Protocol contract sends 1 ETH to reserve 2. 8. The reserve sends 820 BAT to the taker.

1.7 TOKEN-TO-TOKEN TRADE

A token-to-token trade is one where the quote token is neither the source nor the destination token of the trade request. The exchange flow of a token to token trade is depicted in the diagram below, where a taker would like to exchange BAT tokens for DAI as an example. The trade happens in a single blockchain transaction. 1. Taker sends 50 BAT to the protocol contract, and would like to receive DAI in return. 2. Protocol contract sends 50 BAT to the reserve offering the best BAT to ETH rate. 3. Protocol contract receives 1 ETH in return. 4. Protocol contract sends 1 ETH to the reserve offering the best ETH to DAI rate. 5. Protocol contract receives 30 DAI in return. 6. Protocol contract sends 30 DAI to the user.

2.KYBER NETWORK CRYSTAL (KNC) TOKEN

Kyber Network Crystal (KNC) is an ERC-20 utility token and an integral part of Kyber Network.
KNC is the first deflationary staking token where staking rewards and token burns are generated from actual network usage and growth in DeFi.
The Kyber Network Crystal (KNC) is the backbone of the Kyber Network. It works to connect liquidity providers and those who need liquidity and serves three distinct purposes. The first of these is to collect transaction fees, and a portion of every fee collected is burned, which keeps KNC deflationary. Kyber Network Crystals (KNC), are named after the crystals in Star Wars used to power light sabers.
The KNC also ensures the smooth operation of the reserve system in the Kyber liquidity since entities must use third-party tokens to buy the KNC that pays for their operations in the network.
KNC allows token holders to play a critical role in determining the incentive system, building a wide base of stakeholders, and facilitating economic flow in the network. A small fee is charged each time a token exchange happens on the network, and KNC holders get to vote on this fee model and distribution, as well as other important decisions. Over time, as more trades are executed, additional fees will be generated for staking rewards and reserve rebates, while more KNC will be burned. - Participation rewards — KNC holders can stake KNC in the KyberDAO and vote on key parameters. Voters will earn staking rewards (in ETH) - Burning — Some of the network fees will be burned to reduce KNC supply permanently, providing long-term value accrual from decreasing supply. - Reserve incentives — KNC holders determine the portion of network fees that are used as rebates for selected liquidity providers (reserves) based on their volume performance.

Finally, the KNC token is the connection between the Kyber Network and the exchanges, wallets, and dApps that leverage the liquidity network. This is a virtuous system since entities are rewarded with referral fees for directing more users to the Kyber Network, which helps increase adoption for Kyber and for the entities using the Network.
And of course there will soon be a fourth and fifth uses for the KNC, which will be as a staking token used to generate passive income, as well as a governance token used to vote on key parameters of the network.
The Kyber Network Crystal (KNC) was released in a September 2017 ICO at a price around $1. There were 226,000,000 KNC minted for the ICO, with 61% sold to the public. The remaining 39% are controlled 50/50 by the company and the founders/advisors, with a 1 year lockup period and 2 year vesting period.
Currently, just over 180 million coins are in circulation, and the total supply has been reduced to 210.94 million after the company burned 1 millionth KNC token in May 2019 and then its second millionth KNC token just three months later.
That means that while it took 15 months to burn the first million KNC, it took just 10 weeks to burn the second million KNC. That shows how rapidly adoption has been growing recently for Kyber, with July 2019 USD trading volumes on the Kyber Network nearly reaching $60 million. This volume has continued growing, and on march 13, 2020 the network experienced its highest daily trading activity of $33.7 million in a 24-hour period.
Currently KNC is required by Reserve Managers to operate on the network, which ensures a minimum amount of demand for the token. Combined with future plans for burning coins, price is expected to maintain an upward bias, although it has suffered along with the broader market in 2018 and more recently during the summer of 2019.
It was unfortunate in 2020 that a beginning rally was cut short by the coronavirus pandemic, although the token has stabilized as of April 2020, and there are hopes the rally could resume in the summer of 2020.

2.1 HOW ARE KNC TOKENS PRODUCED?

The native token of Kyber is called Kyber Network Crystals (KNC). All reserves are required to pay fees in KNC for the right to manage reserves. The KNC collected as fees are either burned and taken out of the total supply or awarded to integrated dapps as an incentive to help them grow.

2.2 HOW DO YOU GET HOLD OF KNC TOKENS?

Kyber Swap can be used to buy ETH directly using a credit card, which can then be used to swap for KNC. Besides Kyber itself, exchanges such as Binance, Huobi, and OKex trade KNC.

2.3 WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH KYBER?

The most direct and basic function of Kyber is for instantly swapping tokens without registering an account, which anyone can do using an Etheruem wallet such as MetaMask. Users can also create their own reserves and contribute funds to a reserve, but that process is still fairly technical one–something Kyber is working on making easier for users in the future.

2.4 THE GOAL OF KYBER THE FUTURE

The goal of Kyber in the coming years is to solidify its position as a one-stop solution for powering liquidity and token swapping on Ethereum. Kyber plans on a major protocol upgrade called Katalyst, which will create new incentives and growth opportunities for all stakeholders in their ecosystem, especially KNC holders. The upgrade will mean more use cases for KNC including to use KNC to vote on governance decisions through a decentralized organization (DAO) called the KyberDAO.
With our upcoming Katalyst protocol upgrade and new KNC model, Kyber will provide even more benefits for stakeholders. For instance, reserves will no longer need to hold a KNC balance for fees, removing a major friction point, and there will be rebates for top performing reserves. KNC holders can also stake their KNC to participate in governance and receive rewards.

2.5 BUYING & STORING KNC

Those interested in buying KNC tokens can do so at a number of exchanges. Perhaps your best bet between the complete list is the likes of Coinbase Pro and Binance. The former is based in the USA whereas the latter is an offshore exchange.
The trading volume is well spread out at these exchanges, which means that the liquidity is not concentrated and dependent on any one exchange. You also have decent liquidity on each of the exchange books. For example, the Binance BTC / KNC books are wide and there is decent turnover. This means easier order execution.
KNC is an ERC20 token and can be stored in any wallet with ERC20 support, such as MyEtherWallet or MetaMask. One interesting alternative is the KyberSwap Android mobile app that was released in August 2019.
It allows for instant swapping of tokens and has support for over 70 different altcoins. It also allows users to set price alerts and limit orders and works as a full-featured Ethereum wallet.

2.6 KYBER KATALYST UPGRADE

Kyber has announced their intention to become the de facto liquidity layer for the Decentralized Finance space, aiming to have Kyber as the single on-chain endpoint used by the majority of liquidity providers and dApp developers. In order to achieve this goal the Kyber Network team is looking to create an open ecosystem that garners trust from the decentralized finance space. They believe this is the path that will lead the majority of projects, developers, and users to choose Kyber for liquidity needs. With that in mind they have recently announced the launch of a protocol upgrade to Kyber which is being called Katalyst.
The Katalyst upgrade will create a stronger ecosystem by creating strong alignments towards a common goal, while also strengthening the incentives for stakeholders to participate in the ecosystem.
The primary beneficiaries of the Katalyst upgrade will be the three major Kyber stakeholders: 1. Reserve managers who provide network liquidity; 2. dApps that connect takers to Kyber; 3. KNC holders.
These stakeholders can expect to see benefits as highlighted below: Reserve Managers will see two new benefits to providing liquidity for the network. The first of these benefits will be incentives for providing reserves. Once Katalyst is implemented part of the fees collected will go to the reserve managers as an incentive for providing liquidity.
This mechanism is similar to rebates in traditional finance, and is expected to drive the creation of additional reserves and market making, which in turn will lead to greater liquidity and platform reach.
Katalyst will also do away with the need for reserve managers to maintain a KNC balance for use as network fees. Instead fees will be automatically collected and used as incentives or burned as appropriate. This should remove a great deal of friction for reserves to connect with Kyber without affecting the competitive exchange rates that takers in the system enjoy. dApp Integrators will now be able to set their own spread, which will give them full control over their own business model. This means the current fee sharing program that shares 30% of the 0.25% fee with dApp developers will go away and developers will determine their own spread. It’s believed this will increase dApp development within Kyber as developers will now be in control of fees.
KNC Holders, often thought of as the core of the Kyber Network, will be able to take advantage of a new staking mechanism that will allow them to receive a portion of network fees by staking their KNC and participating in the KyberDAO.

2.7 COMING KYBERDAO

With the implementation of the Katalyst protocol the KNC holders will be put right at the heart of Kyber. Holders of KNC tokens will now have a critical role to play in determining the future economic flow of the network, including its incentive systems.
The primary way this will be achieved is through KyberDAO, a way in which on-chain and off-chain governance will align to streamline cooperation between the Kyber team, KNC holders, and market participants.
The Kyber Network team has identified 3 key areas of consideration for the KyberDAO: 1. Broad representation, transparent governance and network stability 2. Strong incentives for KNC holders to maintain their stake and be highly involved in governance 3. Maximizing participation with a wide range of options for voting delegation
Interaction between KNC Holders & Kyber
This means KNC holders have been empowered to determine the network fee and how to allocate the fees to ensure maximum network growth. KNC holders will now have three fee allocation options to vote on: - Voting Rewards: Immediate value creation. Holders who stake and participate in the KyberDAO get their share of the fees designated for rewards. - Burning: Long term value accrual. The decreasing supply of KNC will improve the token appreciation over time and benefit those who did not participate. - Reserve Incentives:Value creation via network growth. By rewarding Kyber reserve managers based on their performance, it helps to drive greater volume, value, and network fees.

2.8 TRANSPARENCY AND STABILITY

The design of the KyberDAO is meant to allow for the greatest network stability, as well as maximum transparency and the ability to quickly recover in emergency situations. Initally the Kyber team will remain as maintainers of the KyberDAO. The system is being developed to be as verifiable as possible, while still maintaining maximum transparency regarding the role of the maintainer in the DAO.
Part of this transparency means that all data and processes are stored on-chain if feasible. Voting regarding network fees and allocations will be done on-chain and will be immutable. In situations where on-chain storage or execution is not feasible there will be a set of off-chain governance processes developed to ensure all decisions are followed through on.

2.9 KNC STAKING AND DELEGATION

Staking will be a new addition and both staking and voting will be done in fixed periods of times called “epochs”. These epochs will be measured in Ethereum block times, and each KyberDAO epoch will last roughly 2 weeks.
This is a relatively rapid epoch and it is beneficial in that it gives more rapid DAO conclusion and decision-making, while also conferring faster reward distribution. On the downside it means there needs to be a new voting campaign every two weeks, which requires more frequent participation from KNC stakeholders, as well as more work from the Kyber team.
Delegation will be part of the protocol, allowing stakers to delegate their voting rights to third-party pools or other entities. The pools receiving the delegation rights will be free to determine their own fee structure and voting decisions. Because the pools will share in rewards, and because their voting decisions will be clearly visible on-chain, it is expected that they will continue to work to the benefit of the network.

3. TRADING

After the September 2017 ICO, KNC settled into a trading price that hovered around $1.00 (decreasing in BTC value) until December. The token has followed the trend of most other altcoins — rising in price through December and sharply declining toward the beginning of January 2018.
The KNC price fell throughout all of 2018 with one exception during April. From April 6th to April 28th, the price rose over 200 percent. This run-up coincided with a blog post outlining plans to bring Bitcoin to the Ethereum blockchain. Since then, however, the price has steadily fallen, currently resting on what looks like a $0.15 (~0.000045 BTC) floor.
With the number of partners using the Kyber Network, the price may rise as they begin to fully use the network. The development team has consistently hit the milestones they’ve set out to achieve, so make note of any release announcements on the horizon.

4. COMPETITION

The 0x project is the biggest competitor to Kyber Network. Both teams are attempting to enter the decentralized exchange market. The primary difference between the two is that Kyber performs the entire exchange process on-chain while 0x keeps the order book and matching off-chain.
As a crypto swap exchange, the platform also competes with ShapeShift and Changelly.

5.KYBER MILESTONES

• June 2020: Digifox, an all-in-one finance application by popular crypto trader and Youtuber Nicholas Merten a.k.a DataDash (340K subs), integrated Kyber to enable users to easily swap between cryptocurrencies without having to leave the application. • June 2020: Stake Capital partnered with Kyber to provide convenient KNC staking and delegation services, and also took a KNC position to participate in governance. • June 2020: Outlined the benefits of the Fed Price Reserve (FPR) for professional market makers and advanced developers. • May 2020: Kyber crossed US$1 Billion in total trading volume and 1 Million transactions, performed entirely on-chain on Ethereum. • May 2020: StakeWith.Us partnered Kyber Network as a KyberDAO Pool Master. • May 2020: 2Key, a popular blockchain referral solution using smart links, integrated Kyber’s on-chain liquidity protocol for seamless token swaps • May 2020: Blockchain game League of Kingdoms integrated Kyber to accept Token Payments for Land NFTs. • May 2020: Joined the Zcash Developer Alliance , an invite-only working group to advance Zcash development and interoperability. • May 2020: Joined the Chicago DeFi Alliance to help accelerate on-chain market making for professionals and developers. • March 2020: Set a new record of USD $33.7M in 24H fully on-chain trading volume, and $190M in 30 day on-chain trading volume. • March 2020: Integrated by Rarible, Bullionix, and Unstoppable Domains, with the KyberWidget deployed on IPFS, which allows anyone to swap tokens through Kyber without being blocked. • February 2020: Popular Ethereum blockchain game Axie Infinity integrated Kyber to accept ERC20 payments for NFT game items. • February 2020: Kyber’s protocol was integrated by Gelato Finance, Idle Finance, rTrees, Sablier, and 0x API for their liquidity needs. • January 2020: Kyber Network was found to be the most used protocol in the whole decentralized finance (DeFi) space in 2019, according to a DeFi research report by Binance. • December 2019: Switcheo integrated Kyber’s protocol for enhanced liquidity on their own DEX. • December 2019: DeFi Wallet Eidoo integrated Kyber for seamless in-wallet token swaps. • December 2019: Announced the development of the Katalyst Protocol Upgrade and new KNC token model. • July 2019: Developed the Waterloo Bridge , a Decentralized Practical Cross-chain Bridge between EOS and Ethereum, successfully demonstrating a token swap between Ethereum to EOS. • July 2019: Trust Wallet, the official Binance wallet, integrated Kyber as part of its decentralized token exchange service, allowing even more seamless in-wallet token swaps for thousands of users around the world. • May 2019: HTC, the large consumer electronics company with more than 20 years of innovation, integrated Kyber into its Zion Vault Wallet on EXODUS 1 , the first native web 3.0 blockchain phone, allowing users to easily swap between cryptocurrencies in a decentralized manner without leaving the wallet. • January 2019: Introduced the Automated Price Reserve (APR) , a capital efficient way for token teams and individuals to market make with low slippage. • January 2019: The popular Enjin Wallet, a default blockchain DApp on the Samsung S10 and S20 mobile phones, integrated Kyber to enable in-wallet token swaps. • October 2018: Kyber was a founding member of the WBTC (Wrapped Bitcoin) Initiative and DAO. • October 2018: Developed the KyberWidget for ERC20 token swaps on any website, with CoinGecko being the first major project to use it on their popular site.

Full Article

submitted by CoinEx_Institution to kybernetwork [link] [comments]

THE REAL TRUTH ABOUT BITCOIN LEVERAGE TRADING... Bitcoin Leverage Trading USA - $400 On A SINGLE TRADE ... Leverage Trading Bitcoin - Tips for Beginners - How to Avoid Liquidation what is leverage? (Margin Trading Explained ... Prime XBT Tutorial For Beginners (Leverage Trading) - YouTube

Launched in 2018, March and based out of Singapore, ByBit is a platform to trade Bitcoin-like crypto with leverage of up to 100x, meaning, if you have 1 BTC, you can place a buy/sell order of 100 BTC exposure. A number of Bitcoin trading platforms now allow you to trade on leverage. The amount of leverage that you will be able to get will depend on a range of factors. Firstly, if you decide to use a regulated CFD platform to trade Bitcoin, then the broker will need to comply with the regulations set out by the European Securities and Markets ... In 2019, the popularity of leverage trading (aka margin trading) has grown considerably in Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency markets. This trend can be seen with the comparable growth of the trading… 1:100 leverage trade with PrimeXBT Here you’d only have to pay 1% of your $100,000 position, or $1,000 to open such trade. If the Bitcoin price rises by 5%, you would still make the same profit of $5,000, but at a considerably reduced cost. Depending how much leverage a bitcoin broker allows, you can go up to 1:100, meaning you can trade with a position that is 100x bigger than your stake. This means you only have to fund 1 BTC from your own account and in case of 1:100 leverage ratio, the total bitcoins available to be purchased on the margin account is 100BTC.

[index] [14893] [6452] [5840] [5170] [33595] [1557] [14880] [5822] [28345] [10023]

THE REAL TRUTH ABOUT BITCOIN LEVERAGE TRADING...

In this New PrimeXBT tutorial for beginners, I'll show you how to open a trade with Bitcoin with up to 100x leverage. It's very easy to short Bitcoin with leverage. I'll show you how to assign ... JOIN BYBIT NOW: https://www.bybit.com/home/en/index.html?affiliate_id=706&group_id=217&group_type=1 ByBit is a worldwide platform for cryptocurrency derivati... PatternCast #Bitcoin Signals https://patterncast.com Join Our Discord Server https://patterncast.com/discord Leave a Tip if you feel like I helped https://tr... My experience of using leverage in trading as a beginner - what is leverage, how do you use it on Etoro: https://etoro.tw/2ijxtbg Over the last year, the new... Beginner Method: $100-$1000/Day Passive Cryptocurrency Trading 2020! Bitcoin Bitmex, Binance, Bybit - Duration: 14:04. Patrick Corsino 55,643 views

#